(1945- ) US writer, much travelled in childhood, with an MA in English from the University of Georgia, where he did a thesis on the poetry of Dylan Thomas. He began publishing sf with "Piñon Fall" for Galaxy in October 1970, and in a short period established himself as one of the significant new writers of the 1970s. Though his early stories and novels display considerable intellectual complexity, and do not shirk the downbeat implications of their anthropological (> Anthropology) treatment of Aliens and alienating milieux, there remained a sense in which Bishop could not be treated as one of those writers, like Edward Bryant, whose primary influences could be seen as the US New Wave of the 1960s combined with the liberating influence of the numerous writing workshops of the succeeding decade. But there are costs involved in walking alone. The earnest ardour and rigorousness of Bishop's fiction has made him eminently publishable, but difficult to market to an audience expecting easier heroes to identify with (his fourteen sf/fantasy novels, all but one in hardback, were published by ten different firms).
Bishop's first novel, for instance, A Funeral for the Eyes of Fire (1975; rev vt Eyes of Fire 1980; vt to original title with revs retained and new introduction 1989), laces its Hard SF premises with diversionary Gothicisms (most of them removed as part of the extensive 1980 revision), initially obscuring the fact that what seems to be a routine plot – on an alien planet, the protagonist must perform wonders or be sent back to a despotic Earth – becomes, almost secretly, a complex and sometimes moving analysis of Alien cultures, and a meditation on the possibility of any genuine understanding across species. The finest of these Anthropology-based interrogatory tales is Transfigurations (January/February 1973 If as "Death and Designation among the Asadi"; exp vt 1979), where the colonizing impact of a "superior" culture upon less technologically advanced natives is complexly contrasted – in a story which owes much to Joseph Conrad – with the recursive unknowableness of the Other. And Strange at Ecbatan the Trees (1976; vt Beneath the Shattered Moons 1977; vt as coll Beneath the Shattered Moons and The White Otters of Childhood 1978), is a somewhat less convincing Far-Future tale dealing with a world most of whose people, long ago genetically engineered (> Genetic Engineering) into stoicism, are now apparently incapable of aggression or any other display of emotion. Stolen Faces (1977), again set on an alien planet, darkly offers a culture so diseased that its inhabitants must designate themselves through gross mutilations; but where some sf writers at the end of the twentieth century might embrace the Commedia dell'Arte implications of this sort of "decadence" (> Cyberpunk, Equipoise, Space Opera), Bishop treats his material with humanist reserve.
Meanwhile, while publishing these novels and many of the stories collected in Blooded on Arachne (coll 1982) and One Winter in Eden (coll 1984), Bishop was increasingly focusing his sharp exploratory eye upon the eerier provinces of the US South. In A Little Knowledge (1977) and its sequel, Catacomb Years (fixup 1979), a theocratic regime repressively dominates a Near-Future Atlanta, Georgia, until the conversion of some apparent aliens begins to destabilize society; the vision of Atlanta as a domed city whose various levels and intersections literally map the new social order may be cognitively daring, but – for reasons hinted at above – it thins out in the mind's eye when described without joy. However, Bishop's most public success soon followed. No Enemy But Time (1982), which won a Nebula, intensified the movement of his imagination to a local habitat, and for the first time introduced a protagonist of sufficient racial (and mental) complexity to carry a storyline immured in the particular and haunted by the exotic. In this case, dogged by dreams of the Pleistocene, the new Bishop protagonist – who is not dissimilar to the Habiline who later featured in the less successful and overextended tale of Atlanta and Haiti, Ancient of Days (1985) (> Apes as Human) – is enlisted into a Time-Travel project, returns to the Africa of his vision, fathers a child in the dawn of time, and returns with her to the battering world. The tale is both melancholy and epic (> Evolution; Prehistoric SF). This meditation is extended in To a Chimp Held Captive for Purposes of Research (1986 broadsheet), a poem.
Through the 1980s, Bishop continued to strive for an adequate form to engage his humanist sympathies; to find forms to express his native South, which is perhaps all too rich in material; to unlock the lurking humorist within the preacher. Who Made Stevie Crye?: A Novel of the American South (1984) is a strangely unengaged horror novel, with laughs. The Secret Ascension (1987; vt Philip K. Dick is Dead, Alas 1988), set in an Alternate-History USA, homages and stars Dick (see also Recursive SF) as a reincarnated possible saviour of an Alternate History vision of Amerika as Dystopia under the rule of Richard Nixon; it is perhaps his most ambitious, most sophisticated, most genuinely urban novel. Unicorn Mountain (1988), once again set partly in Atlanta, is a fantasy in which the dying of unicorns from another Dimension and the problem of AIDS in this world intersect encouragingly; and Count Geiger's Blues (1992), another fantasy – set in Atlanta-like Salonika, capital of the imaginary southern state of Oconee – is told in Bishop's uneasily humorous, highly individual voice. Though full of energy and strongly willed, with the exception of Philip K Dick Is Dead, Alas (Bishop's preferred title) these novels do not feel entirely comfortably in focus. On the other hand, Brittle Innings (1994) gives a powerful sense of smoothly released energies; retelling the story of the Frankenstein Monster within a Gothic SF frame – it is set in the American South during World War Two, and the Monster is a professional Baseball player – it amply confirms a sense that Bishop, constantly in search of a strong world to illuminate, had once again found one.
Some volumes of short fiction have followed, most notably The Quickening (in Universe 11, anth 1981, ed Terry Carr; 1991 chap), reprinting a 1981 winner of the Nebula; Blue Kansas Sky: Four Short Novels of Memory, Magic, Surmise & Estrangement (coll 2000), which incorporates Apartheid, Superstrings, and Mordecai Thubana (1989 chap); in A Reverie for Mister Ray: Reflections on Life, Death, and Speculative Fiction (coll 2005) Bishop assembled an intensely interesting array of nonfiction; and The Door Gunner and Other Perilous Flights of Fancy: A Michael Bishop Retrospective (coll 2011) assembles stories from his entire career, from his 1970 Galaxy debut "Piñon Fall" to "The City Quiet as Death" (9 June 2009 Tor.com) with Steven Utley, the stories being revised into definitive form. But he has not published a solo novel this century. It is hoped that the diversion of this large voice will not be permanent. [JC]
see also: Arkham House; Cosmology; Devolution; Origin of Man; Poetry; Sex; Sociology; Superheroes; Timescape Books.
Michael Lawson Bishop
born Lincoln, Nebraska: 12 November 1945
- A Funeral for the Eyes of Fire (New York: Ballantine Books, 1975) [pb/Gene Szafran]
- And Strange at Ecbatan the Trees (New York: Harper and Row, 1976) [hb/Jonathan Weld]
- Stolen Faces (New York: Harper and Row, 1977) [hb/Jonathan Weld]
- A Little Knowledge (New York: Berkley Publishing Corporation, 1977) [Urban Nucleus: hb/Dean Ellis]
- Catacomb Years (New York: Berkley Publishing Corporation, 1979) [fixup: Urban Nucleus: hb/Ron Walotsky]
- Transfigurations (New York: Berkley Publishing Corporation, 1979) [fixup: hb/Mike Hinge]
- Under Heaven's Bridge (London: Victor Gollancz, 1980) with Ian Watson [dated 1980 but published 1981: Urban Nucleus: hb/]
- No Enemy But Time (New York: Timescape Books, 1982) [hb/Vincent Di Fate]
- Who Made Stevie Crye?: A Novel of the American South (Sauk City, Wisconsin: Arkham House, 1984) [hb/Glenry Tutor]
- Ancient of Days (New York: Arbor House, 1985) [hb/Christopher Zacharow]
- The Secret Ascension; Or, Philip K Dick Is Dead, Alas (New York: Tor, 1987) [hb/Carol Russo]
- Unicorn Mountain (New York: William Morrow, 1988) [hb/Bryn Babard]
- Count Geiger's Blues (New York: Tor, 1992) [hb/Thomas Canty]
- Brittle Innings (New York: Bantam Books, 1994) [hb/Michael Dudash]
- Would It Kill You to Smile (Atlanta, Georgia: Longstreet: 1998) with Paul Di Filippo, writing together as Philip Lawson [detection: hb/David Turner]
- Muskrat Courage (New York: St Martin's Minotaur, 2000) with Paul Di Filippo, writing together as Philip Lawson [detection: hb/Joseph Daniel Fiedler]
- Families Are Murder (Rockville, Maryland: Wildside Press/PointBlank, 2005) with Paul Di Filippo, writing together as Philip Lawson [omni of the above two: pod: pb/oiva design group]
collections, poetry and stories
- Windows & Mirrors: A Chapbook of Poetry to Deep South Con XV (no place listed: The Moravian Press, 1977) [poetry: chap: pb/]
- Beneath the Shattered Moons and The White Otters of Childhood (London: Sphere Books, 1978) [coll: incorporating And Strange at Ecbatan the Trees (see novels above): pb/]
- Blooded on Arachne (Sauk City, Wisconsin: Arkham House, 1982) [coll: hb/Ron Walotsky]
- One Winter in Eden (Sauk City, Wisconsin: Arkham House, 1984) [coll: hb/Raymond Bayless]
- Close Encounters with the Deity (Atlanta, Georgia: Peachtree Publishers, 1986) [coll: pb/Ralph Masiello]
- To a Chimp Held Captive for Purposes of Research (Willimantic, Connecticut: Mark V Ziesing, 1986) [poem: broadsheet: na/]
- Within the Walls of Tyre (Worcester, Surrey: The Kerosina Press, 1989) [screenplay: chap: rev from story in Weirdbook 13, 1978: hb/uncredited]
- Apartheid, Superstrings, and Mordecai Thubana (Eugene, Oregon: Pulphouse/Axolotl, 1989) [story: chap: hb/Donna Gordon]
- Emphatically Not Sf, Almost (Eugene, Oregon: Pulphouse/Axolotl, 1990) [coll: hb/George Barr]
- The Quickening (Eugene, Oregon: Pulphouse/Axolotl, 1991) [story: chap: pb/George Barr]
- At the City Limits of Fate (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Edgewood Press, 1996) [coll: hb/Rick Berry]
- Time Pieces: Poems (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Edgewood Press, 1998) [poetry: coll: pb/Jamie Bishop]
- Blue Kansas Sky: Four Short Novels of Memory, Magic, Surmise & Estrangement (Urbana, Illinois: Golden Gryphon Press, 2000) [coll: hb/Ron Walotsky]
- Brighten to Incandescence: 17 Stories (Urbana, Illinois: Golden Gryphon Press, 2003) [coll: hb/Jamie Bishop]
- The City Quiet as Death (New York: Tor.com, 2009) with Steven Utley [story: ebook: na/Jon Foster]
- The Door Gunner and Other Perilous Flights of Fancy: A Michael Bishop Retrospective (Burton, Michigan: Subterranean Press, 2011) [coll: all stories revised: edited by Michael H Hutchins: hb/Lee Moyer]
works as editor
See also Nebula Anthologies.
about the author
Previous versions of this entry