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Welcome to the Encyclopedia of Science Fiction, Fourth Edition. Some sample entries appear below. Click here for the Introduction; here for the masthead; here for Acknowledgments; here for the FAQ; here for advice on citations. Find entries via the search box above (more details here) or browse the menu categories in the grey bar at the top of this page.

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Howells, William Dean

(1837-1920) US author, best known for his many realist novels from 1870 onwards, and for his fairly numerous stories, several of them fantastic, like "Christmas Every Day" (January 1886 St Nicholas Magazine), a Time-Loop tale that Danny Rubin – scriptwriter for Groundhog Day (1993) – claimed was his only inspiration for that film. Some of Howells's tales of interest were assembled in Questionable Shapes (coll 1903) and Between the Dark and the Daylight: Romances (coll 1907), most of ...

Innes, Michael

Pseudonym used by Scots author and academic J I M Stewart (1906-1994) for his many detective and thriller novels published from 1936 to 1986, often featuring series character John Appleby in various official roles from detective-inspector to Sir John Appleby, Commissioner of Metropolitan Police, and onward through a long, active retirement. Though fantastical and donnishly whimsical, these tales normally keep sf devices at arm's length, as with the distant threat of Disaster through man-made ...

Carter, R M H

(?   -    ) UK author who began to publish work of genre interest with "Rotating Frame-Up" as Robert M H Carter in Pulsar 2 (anth 1979) edited by George Hay. His single sf novel, for Robert Hale Limited, is The Dream Killers (1981). [DRL] see also: Gravity. /

Devinne, Paul

(?   -?   ) US author of a Sleeper Awakes tale, The Day of Prosperity: A Vision of the Century to Come (1902), whose protagonist, on awakening after a century of well-tended sleep, complacently discovers a Utopia on lines directly reminiscent of Edward Bellamy's Looking Backward (1888): but even more than Bellamy, Devinne sees technological advances as inevitably generating a better world. [JC]

Archer, William

(1856-1924) Scottish critic, translator and dramatist, an important reformer of the near-moribund English theatre through his translations of Henrik Ibsen (1828-1906), through his critical essays assembled in Masks or Faces? (coll 1888) and elsewhere, and through his alliance with George Bernard Shaw. He is of minor sf interest for a late play, The Green Goddess: A Play in Four Acts (performed Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 1920; 1921), a Lost Race melodrama set in a Shangri-La-like enclave in ...

Clute, John

(1940-    ) Canadian critic, editor and author, in the UK from 1969; married to Judith Clute from 1964, partner of Elizabeth Hand since 1996. His first professional publication was the long sf-tinged poem "Carcajou Lament" (Winter 1960 [ie Autumn 1959] Triquarterly), though he only began publishing sf reviews in 1964 and sf proper with "A Man Must Die" in New Worlds for November 1966, where much of his earlier criticism also appeared. This criticism, despite some studiously ...

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