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Welcome to the Encyclopedia of Science Fiction, Fourth Edition. Some sample entries appear below. Click here for the Introduction; here for the masthead; here for Acknowledgments; here for the FAQ; here for advice on citations. Find entries via the search box above (more details here) or browse the menu categories in the grey bar at the top of this page.

Site updated on 27 June 2022
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Norton, Andre

Initially the working name of US author Alice Mary Norton (1912-2005), but for most of her career her legal name. A librarian for two decades before turning to full-time writing, she was one of the few sf figures of any stature to enter the field via Children's SF, and, though much of her work is fully as adult in theme and difficulty as most general sf, she was for many years primarily marketed as a writer for children and the Young Adult market. In the 1970s and 1980s, however, as her work ...

Palmer, Jessica

(1953-    ) US journalist and author of two fantasy series – Dark Lullaby and Renegade World, see Checklist for titles – and the Space Opera Factor sequence, comprising Random Factor (1994), Human Factor (1996) and Random Factor (1997), about a cruel war fought in interstellar space by opposing forces of Clones governed by a central AI, supposedly for the benefit of humanity; but the tables are soon turned, and Earth becomes a battlefield. [JC]


A clone is a group of individuals comprising the asexually produced offspring of a single individual. A pair of identical twins is a clone because the twin cells are produced by the asexual fission of the fertilized ovum. Asexual reproduction is very common among protozoa and some groups of invertebrates, but is much rarer in vertebrates. The possibility of cloning humans by transplanting the nucleus of a somatic cell from a donor into an ovum which can then be replaced in a host womb has ...

McIntosh, Will

(1962-    ) US author who began to publish work of genre interest with "A Flea Market Vendor Falls in Love in a Time of Sleeplessness" in NFG for September 2003, and who has since published his short fiction widely. Reviewing his first novel, Soft Apocalypse (September 2005 Interzone; much exp 2011), Gary K Wolfe suggested in "Locus Looks at Books" (February 2011 Locus) that its title neatly characterized a mutation of the Holocaust tale away from single violent Disasters or ...

Toolis, Lorna

(1952-2021) Canadian librarian and editor, initially involved in Canadian Fandom, best known for her long successful tenure as head of the Merril Collection of Science Fiction, Speculation and Fantasy in the Toronto Public Library system from 1986, when the collection was still known as The Spaced Out Library or SoL, until her retirement in 2017. Having shepherded with great care in a demanding environment, in 1995 she supervised the transfer of what was now the Merril Collection from ...

Robinson, Roger

(1943-    ) UK computer programmer, bibliographer and publisher, active in UK Fandom for many years. The Writings of Henry Kenneth Bulmer (1983 chap; rev 1984 chap) is an exhaustive Bibliography of one of the most prolific sf writers, and Who's Hugh?: An SF Reader's Guide to Pseudonyms (1987) is similarly exhaustive in its listing of Pseudonyms. Criticized at first for its failure to annotate its findings – so that, for instance, pseudonyms used for sf could not be ...

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