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Welcome to the Encyclopedia of Science Fiction, Fourth Edition. Some sample entries appear below. Click here for the Introduction; here for the masthead; here for Acknowledgments; here for the FAQ; here for advice on citations. Find entries via the search box above (more details here) or browse the menu categories in the grey bar at the top of this page.

Site updated on 23 September 2022
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US animated tv series (2019-current; vt Genndy Tartakovsky's Primal). Studio La Cachette. Created and directed by Genndy Tartakovsky. Writers include Bryan Andrews, Darrick Bachman, David Krentz and Genndy Tartakovsky. Voice cast includes Laetitia Eido-Mollon and Aaron LaPlante. Ten 22-minute episodes. Colour. / Spear (LaPlante), a caveman (probably Neanderthal), is unable to prevent his mate and children being eaten by a herd of Tyrannosauroids (see Dinosaurs), who later devour the young ...


The history of radio sf is badly under-researched, but it is clear that, in some important respects, it anticipates that of Television sf. The major televisual forms – the series, the serial and the anthology – were all originally developed for radio. Many television sf programmes, from Superman and Buck Rogers to The Hitch Hiker's Guide to the Galaxy, were also directly adapted from earlier radio programmes. Radio is cheaper to produce than television, and very much cheaper than ...

Summer Wars

Japanese animated film (2009). Madhouse, NTV, Kadokawa, DN Dream Partners, Vap, Warner Bors, Yomiuri TV. Directed by Mamoru Hosoda. Written by Satoko Okudera. Cast includes Sumiko Fuji, Ryūnosuke Kamiki, Ayumu Saitō and Nanami Sakuraba. 114 minutes. Colour. / Teenage maths geek Kenji (Kamiki) agrees to help the school beauty Natsuki (Sakuraba) on an unspecified task, only to discover that he must pose as her boyfriend at a family gathering to satisfy the conditions of a vow to her ...

Whiteford, Wynne N

(1915-2002) Australian motoring journalist and author who began to publish work of genre interest with "Beyond the Infinite" for Adam and Eve, 28 May 1934. He then fell silent until the mid-1950s, at which point he also began to sell to overseas markets, starting with "The Non-Existent Man" (July 1958 Amazing); after 1960, however, he did not sell to the American market for a quarter of a century. Whiteford's mature work turns again and again to dilemmas attending First Contact with Alien ...

Ōshima Yumiko

(1947-    ) Japanese comics artist whose influence in visual media greatly outstrips her relatively modest publishing output. With her debut with the non-genre "Paula no Namida" ["Paula's Tears"] (1968 Margaret), Ōshima became one of the pioneer female artists taking control of the girls' comics medium from the male creators who had previously dominated it (see Year 24 Group). / Joker e ["To the Joker"] (April 1973-September 1973 Bessatsu Shōjo Comic; graph ...

Nicholls, Peter

(1939-2018) Australian editor and author, primarily a critic and historian of sf through his creation and editing of The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction [see below]; resident in the UK 1970-1988, in Australia from 1988; worked as an academic in English literature (1962-1968, 1971-1977), scripted television documentaries, was a Harkness Fellow in Film-making (1968-1970) in the USA, worked as a publisher's editor (1982-1983), often broadcast film and book reviews on BBC Radio from 1974 and ...

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