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Welcome to the Encyclopedia of Science Fiction, Fourth Edition. Some sample entries appear below. Click here for the Introduction; here for the masthead; here for Acknowledgments; here for the FAQ; here for advice on citations. Find entries via the search box above (more details here) or browse the menu categories in the grey bar at the top of this page.

Site updated on 27 June 2022
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Batman Films

The DC Comics character Batman has a long history in film, with six principal franchise strands: (i) the Columbia serials of the 1940s, 1-2; (ii) the 1966 Fox television series and its spinoff film 3; (iii) the Burton-Schumacher film cycle for Warners, 4-5, 7-8; (iv) feature-length animations spun off from Warners' various animated television series, 6, 9-11, 13; (v) Warners' Nolan-Goyer film cycle, 12, 14-15, 18; and (vi) DC's own animated features 16-17. The complex relationship between the ...

Meredith, Edgar

(?   -?   ) UK author of a Scientific Romance, Our Stranger: A Kinemato-Romance (1936), in which the Time theories of J W Dunne are used to shape the relationship between the evolving human race, as depicted in the London of 1971, and their mentors, who inhabit a Utopia in the Far Future (see also Evolution). [JC]. /

McInnes, Graham

(1912-1970) UK-born film producer (for the National Film Board of Canada), diplomat (in the Canadian Department of External Affairs) and author, in Australia from 1920, in Canada after 1934; son of the novelist Angela Thirkell (1890-1961) – another son of hers was Colin MacInnes (1914-1976), who spelt his surname thus. Most of McInnes's work is not sf, but Lost Island: An Adventure (1954) is a Lost-Race story, in which a Canadian aviator crashlands on an Edenic Island originally ...

Dial, Judith K

Working name of Judith Klein-Dial (?   -    ), US author of computer manuals [not listed below] and editor of a number of genre Anthologies in collaboration with Thomas A Easton. The first of these was the Prediction-themed Visions of Tomorrow: Science Fiction Predictions That Came True (anth 2010). [DRL]


The unpleasant human institution of slavery is frequently extrapolated into spacegoing sf futures. One notable instance is Robert A Heinlein's Citizen of the Galaxy (September-December 1957 Astounding; 1957), which opens with the young protagonist being sold as a slave on a colony world whose Economics revolve around this practice, and closes with him – now free and in a position of some power – working from Earth to oppose the deeply rooted interstellar slave trade. A similar story ...

Clute, John

(1940-    ) Canadian critic, editor and author, in the UK from 1969; married to Judith Clute from 1964, partner of Elizabeth Hand since 1996. His first professional publication was the long sf-tinged poem "Carcajou Lament" (Winter 1960 [ie Autumn 1959] Triquarterly), though he only began publishing sf reviews in 1964 and sf proper with "A Man Must Die" in New Worlds for November 1966, where much of his earlier criticism also appeared. This criticism, despite some studiously ...

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