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Welcome to the Encyclopedia of Science Fiction, Fourth Edition. Some sample entries appear below. Click here for the Introduction; here for the masthead; here for Acknowledgments; here for the FAQ; here for advice on citations. Find entries via the search box above (more details here) or browse the menu categories in the grey bar at the top of this page.

Site updated on 4 July 2022
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German experimental prog-rock band, active in the 1970s, who released a number of sf-themed albums. Founded in 1968 by bassist Holger Czukay (1938-2017), keyboard-player Irmin Schmidt (1937-    ) who had both studied under avant-garde composer Karlheinz Stockhausen, together with guitarist Michael Karoli (1948-2001), and drummer Jaki Liebezeit (1939-    ). Initially the band worked with the American vocalist and lyricist David Johnson; but he was replaced ...


Film (1927). UFA. Directed by Fritz Lang. Written by Lang and Thea von Harbou. Cast includes Alfred Abel, Erwin Biswanger, Gustav Fröhlich, Heinrich George, Brigitte Helm, Rudolf Klein-Rogge. Theodor Loos and Fritz Rasp. Versions (selected) include original version 153 minutes; 1927 US Paramount version print 114 minutes; 1984 US reconstruction and adaptation by Giorgio Moroder 80 minutes; 2002 F W Murnau Stiftung reconstruction 123 minutes; 2010 reconstruction 145 minutes. Black and ...

Class of 1999

1. Film (1990). Lightning/Original/Vestron. Produced and directed by Mark L Lester. Written by C Courtney Joyner, based on a story by Lester. Cast includes Bradley Gregg, Pam Grier, Stacy Keach, Patrick Kilpatrick, Traci Lin, Malcolm McDowell and John P Ryan. 98 minutes. Colour. / In the USA of 1999 most Cities have no-go "Free Fire" zones ruled by teenage gangs, and many schools are closed. As an experiment, the Department of Educational Defense uses ex-military Androids for teachers, ...

Duble, Kathleen Benner

(1958-    ) US author for Young Adult audiences, whose only book of strong sf interest is her first, Bridging Beyond (2002), in which "genetic memories" generated by her great-grandmother afflict a teenage girl. [JC]

History in SF

The real history of the world and the many Alternate Histories which might have replaced it are extensively featured in sf stories of Time Travel and Parallel Worlds, but sf writers have also drawn much inspiration from history in designing hypothetical futures. Sometimes, like Charles L Harness in Flight into Yesterday (May 1949 Startling; exp 1953; vt The Paradox Men) and James Blish in Cities in Flight (1950-1962 var mags; omni 1970), they have made use of actual theories – from Arnold ...

Clute, John

(1940-    ) Canadian critic, editor and author, in the UK from 1969; married to Judith Clute from 1964, partner of Elizabeth Hand since 1996. His first professional publication was the long sf-tinged poem "Carcajou Lament" (Winter 1960 [ie Autumn 1959] Triquarterly), though he only began publishing sf reviews in 1964 and sf proper with "A Man Must Die" in New Worlds for November 1966, where much of his earlier criticism also appeared. This criticism, despite some studiously ...

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