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Welcome to the Encyclopedia of Science Fiction, Fourth Edition. Some sample entries appear below. Click here for the Introduction; here for the masthead; here for Acknowledgments; here for the FAQ; here for advice on citations. Find entries via the search box above (more details here) or browse the menu categories in the grey bar at the top of this page.

Site updated on 8 August 2022
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von Harbou, Thea

(1888-1954) German author, most noted for her novels based (at least in part) on screenplays written by herself and her husband, Fritz Lang, who divorced her after she joined the Nazi Party in 1932; she was co-author of the screenplays for all the films Lang made before leaving Germany in 1933. Neither Metropolis (1926; trans anon 1927), which was written in conjunction with Metropolis (1926), nor Frau im Mond (1928; trans Baroness von Hutten as The Girl in the Moon 1930; cut vt The Rocket to ...

Zettel, Sarah

(1966-    ) US author who has also written as by C L Anderson and as by Manrissa Day. She began to publish work of genre interest with "Grandaddy Jenkins Plays the Bones" in The Horror Show for Summer 1988; her subsequent career has divided interestingly between sf short stories and novels (published first), and several fantasy series (published later). She made her first impression therefore as an sf writer, with Reclamation (1996), which won a 1997 Locus Award for Best ...

Romanek, Mark

(1959-    ) US filmmaker whose writing and directing debut Static (1985), about a smalltown teenager who invents (see Invention) a television which purports to see heaven, was a cult hit in the UK; he was taken up by musician Robyn Hitchcock (son of Raymond Hitchcock), his videos for whom led to an acclaimed body of work in that medium after his career in features stalled. He returned to cinema with the crime drama One Hour Photo (2002), and to sf with Never Let Me Go ...

Beyond the Stellar Empire

Role Playing Game (1981). Adventures By Mail. Designed by Jack Everitt, Robert Cook, Michael Popolizio. / Beyond the Stellar Empire was a Play by Mail game created in the US, resembling a massively multiplayer Space Sim such as EVE Online (2003) but mediated entirely through text and run in slow motion. In 1992 the UK company KJC Games (KJC) licenced the game from Adventures By Mail and created a separate instantiation of its fictional world. While the US version has now been shut down, the ...


Japanese term for comic strip or comic book. Its now common use in the English-speaking world dates back to the 1990s. In English it is used to denote Japanese Comics specifically. There tends to be a connotation of the fantastic when English-speaking readers use the term. Movies based on manga include Akira (1988) and Appleseed (2004); the influence of manga is also strongly visible in Tetsuo (1989). [PN/JN] see also: Osamu Tezuka. / further reading / Frederik L Schodt. Manga! ...

Clute, John

(1940-    ) Canadian critic, editor and author, in the UK from 1969; married to Judith Clute from 1964, partner of Elizabeth Hand since 1996. His first professional publication was the long sf-tinged poem "Carcajou Lament" (Winter 1960 [ie Autumn 1959] Triquarterly), though he only began publishing sf reviews in 1964 and sf proper with "A Man Must Die" in New Worlds for November 1966, where much of his earlier criticism also appeared. This criticism, despite some studiously ...

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