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Welcome to the Encyclopedia of Science Fiction, Fourth Edition. Some sample entries appear below. Click here for the Introduction; here for the masthead; here for Acknowledgments; here for the FAQ; here for advice on citations. Find entries via the search box above (more details here) or browse the menu categories in the grey bar at the top of this page.

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MacApp, C C

Pseudonym used by US colour printer Carroll M Capps (1913-1971) in his writing career, which began – after illness forced his retirement – with "A Pride of Islands" in May 1960 for If, with which magazine (and its stablemates) he was chiefly associated for the balance of his short career. Much of his fiction concerns itself with Invasions by Aliens, notably the Gree stories in If and (one tale only) Worlds of Tomorrow – running from "Slaves of Gree" (August 1964 If) to "A ...

Schongut, Emanuel

(1936-    ) American artist, sometimes credited in error as Emmanuel Schongut. He was educated at New York's Pratt Institute, where he later worked as an instructor, and has applied his skills to diverse artistic endeavours including book covers, children's books, posters, and advertisements. His genre work began in the 1960s, when he painted a number of sf book covers for Doubleday, and later for other publishers. His distinctive style, usually featuring simply drawn human ...

Williams, Arthur

(?   -?   ) US author of one of several similarly titled responses to Edward Bellamy's Looking Backward (1888). Williams's Looking Forward (1925) posits a cooperate democratic socialist Utopia. [JC]

Seiun Award

["Nebula Award"] The name for a set of genre prizes voted on by members of the annual Japanese Science Fiction Convention. These Awards take their name from the short-lived Seiun ["Nebula"], a single-issue magazine published by Tetsu Yano in 1954, and acknowledged as Japan's first. Despite the titular resemblance to the Nebula awards given by Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America, the convention-going fan-centred voting process and footprint of the Seiun Awards is more similar to that ...

Nichols, Thomas Low

(1815-1901) US journalist, hydrotherapist, social reformer and author whose Esperanza: My Journey Thither and What I Found There (part publication July 1855-December 1856 Nichols' Monthly; 1860) anonymous is an epistolary Lost Race tale in which many of Nichols' arguments – he was an advocate of free love, a supporter of universal suffrage (see Feminism), and a libertarian – are described as central to the Utopia at the heart of the story. [JC/MA]

Clute, John

(1940-    ) Canadian critic, editor and author, in the UK from 1969; married to Judith Clute from 1964, partner of Elizabeth Hand since 1996. His first professional publication was the long sf-tinged poem "Carcajou Lament" (Winter 1960 [ie Autumn 1959] Triquarterly), though he only began publishing sf reviews in 1964 and sf proper with "A Man Must Die" in New Worlds for November 1966, where much of his earlier criticism also appeared. This criticism, despite some studiously ...

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