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Welcome to the Encyclopedia of Science Fiction, Fourth Edition. Some sample entries appear below. Click here for the Introduction; here for the masthead; here for Acknowledgments; here for the FAQ; here for advice on citations. Find entries via the search box above (more details here) or browse the menu categories in the grey bar at the top of this page.

Site updated on 23 May 2022
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Battle Angel

Japanese Original Video Animation (OVA) (1993). Original title Gunnm. Based on the Manga by Yukito Kishiro. Madhouse. Directed by Hiroshi Fukutomi. Written by Akinori Endō. Voice cast includes Shigeru Chiba, Miki Itō, Shunsuke Kariya, Mami Koyama and Kappei Yamaguchi. Two 30-minute episodes. Colour. / The aerial City of Zalem dumps its factory waste and other detritus onto the surface below, around which has grown Scrap Iron City. Many its inhabitants are heavily Cyborged, whilst ...

Eno, Brian

(1948-    ) Influential UK musician, associated with the invention of minimalist "ambient" musical styles. Much of his work is instrumental, and identifying it as sf is an unsure business, although there is a spacious and material "otherworldliness" about the best of Eno's ambient compositions that are certainly evocative in the same way that some sf is evocative. Another Green World (1975) perhaps filters perceptions of the Earth through an imaginary other planet. Apollo: ...

Mascarenhas, Kate

(1980-    ) UK psychologist and author; her sf novel, The Psychology of Time Travel (2018), is an Alternate History tale whose Jonbar Point is the Invention in 1967 of Time Travel, made possible through the Discovery of Faster Than Light radio waves. For several decades, the four women Scientists responsible enjoy the transformed world they have initiated, engaging (along with, it may be, the revitalized world at large) in complex trans-temporal Sex and other liberating ...

Raspe, Rudolf Erich

(1737-1794) German-born propagandist, amateur geologist, cataloguer, flim-flam artist, translator and author, in the UK from 1775. His career was harum-scarum; though he edited the posthumous papers of Gottfried Leibniz (1646-1716) as Oeuvres philosophiques latines et francoises de feu Mr de Leibniz (1765), and was elected a fellow of the Royal Society in 1769, he was more than once in deep financial trouble (the Royal Society ejected him in 1775) and narrowly escaped imprisonment. One of his ...

Empson, William

(1906-1984) UK literary critic, theorist, poet and author, perhaps the most brilliant (and cantankerous) British thinker about literature in the twentieth century, most famously for Seven Types of Ambiguity (1930; rev 1947), published just after he was stripped of his degree and normal academic career by Cambridge University for a sexual misdemeanour (a condom was discovered in his rooms), and for Some Versions of Pastoral (1935), whose analysis of "Christ and scapegoat" as a liminal Antihero ...

Clute, John

(1940-    ) Canadian critic, editor and author, in the UK from 1969; married to Judith Clute from 1964, partner of Elizabeth Hand since 1996. His first professional publication was the long sf-tinged poem "Carcajou Lament" (Winter 1960 [ie Autumn 1959] Triquarterly), though he only began publishing sf reviews in 1964 and sf proper with "A Man Must Die" in New Worlds for November 1966, where much of his earlier criticism also appeared. This criticism, despite some studiously ...



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