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Welcome to the Encyclopedia of Science Fiction, Fourth Edition. Some sample entries appear below. Click here for the Introduction; here for the masthead; here for Acknowledgments; here for the FAQ; here for advice on citations. Find entries via the search box above (more details here) or browse the menu categories in the grey bar at the top of this page.

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Davies, Gruff

(1970-    ) UK software designer, entrepreneur and author, developer of Kwiziq, a "language coach" for communicating with and instructing AIs. He is of sf interest for The Looking Glass Club (2010), which examines the consequences, twenty-five years into the Near Future, of a 2010 experiment in reality-manipulation (see Perception; Virtual Reality); elements of Time Travel, slippages into Parallel Worlds and inputs from a possible Secret Master in New York conjugate a tale ...

Tooker, Richard

(1902-1988) US author and editor who wrote also as Dick Presley Tooker; his first sf story, under that name, was the unsophisticated Planetary Romance "Planet Paradise", written when he was fifteen and revised for Weird Tales (February 1924). He wrote one of the prize-winning essays in the contest launched by Hugo Gernsback, "What Science Fiction Means To Me" (June 1929 Wonder Stories). Many of his early sf stories deal with some aspect of human primitivism. He is best remembered for The Day of ...

Cummins, Harle Oren

US author (1877-1937). Of those stories collected in Welsh Rarebit Tales (coll 1902) at least four, including "The Space Annihilator" (September 1901 Argosy as "Martin Bradley's Space Annihilator") and "The Man Who Made a Man" (December 1901 McClure's), have considerable sf interest. In the former story a Matter Transmitter is introduced. Some of his other tales are Fantasy, some showing the influence of Ambrose Bierce. [JC]

Kingston, Jeremy

(1931-    ) UK author, mostly of plays. His novel, Love Among the Unicorns (1968), a surreal fantasy with sf elements set in South America, features a Lost World. He should not be confused with the Jeremy Kingston who is a pseudonym of John Gregory Betancourt. [JC]

Black Friday

Film (1940; vt Friday the Thirteenth). Universal Pictures. Produced by Burt Kelly. Directed by Arthur Lubin. Written by Curt Siodmak (credited as Kurt Siodmak), Eric Taylor, and Edmund L Hartmann (uncredited). Cast includes Boris Karloff, Bela Lugosi and Stanley Ridges. 70 minutes. Black and white. / Kindly Professor George Kingsley (Ridges) is shot in the head during an assassination attempt by mobster Eric Marnay (Lugosi). Realizing the only chance of saving Kingsley's life is by an ...

Clute, John

(1940-    ) Canadian critic, editor and author, in the UK from 1969; married to Judith Clute from 1964, partner of Elizabeth Hand since 1996. His first professional publication was the long sf-tinged poem "Carcajou Lament" (Winter 1960 [ie Autumn 1959] Triquarterly), though he only began publishing sf reviews in 1964 and sf proper with "A Man Must Die" in New Worlds for November 1966, where much of his earlier criticism also appeared. This criticism, despite some studiously ...

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