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Welcome to the Encyclopedia of Science Fiction, Fourth Edition. Some sample entries appear below. Click here for the Introduction; here for the masthead; here for Acknowledgments; here for the FAQ; here for advice on citations. Find entries via the search box above (more details here) or browse the menu categories in the grey bar at the top of this page.

Site updated on 9 December 2022
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Whitmore, Charles

(1945-    ) US author whose Winter's Daughter: The Saying of Signe Ragnhilds-Datter (1984) is set in the Near Future at some point after a nuclear World War Three has failed to end civilization entirely; various strategies for survival are tested in Africa, America and (it is from here that the protagonist speaks) Norway. [JC]


A much-loved item of sf Terminology, coined in Isaac Asimov's very popular sequence Foundation (May 1942-January 1950 Astounding; fixups 1951-1953); it should not be confused with the identical term sometimes used by historians, which refers to the study of the relation of psychological motives to historical process. The attractive but purely ...

Shinkai Makoto

Pseudonym of Makoto Niitsu (1973-    ), a Japanese writer and animator who uses sf tropes as metaphors for the emotional distance between individuals. His short film Hoshi no Koe (2002; vt Voices of a Distant Star, 2004 US) draws on Top o Nerae, with Relativity delaying the Communications sent by phone from a teenage military pilot to her ageing ...

Cole, Cyrus

(?   -?   ) US author. In his eccentrically interesting The Auroraphone: A Romance (1890), messages from a sentient being on Saturn are received on the eponymous instrument, an Invention designed to pick up "sound-signs" from almost anywhere; life on Saturn is Utopian in many ways, although a Robot revolt flares up – one of the first of many in sf, the most ...

Barr, George

(1937-    ) US illustrator, one of the most meticulous of sf/fantasy artists, although for many years his prominence as an artist for Fanzines tended to overshadow his professional work; early illustration venues included George Scithers' Amra, Tom Reamy's Trumpet and the fanzine incarnation of Locus. He received little by way of formal art ...

Clute, John

(1940-    ) Canadian critic, editor and author, in the UK from 1969; married to Judith Clute from 1964, partner of Elizabeth Hand since 1996. His first professional publication was the long sf-tinged poem "Carcajou Lament" (Winter 1960 [ie Autumn 1959] Triquarterly), though he only began publishing sf reviews in 1964 and sf proper with "A Man Must Die" in New Worlds for ...

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