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Welcome to the Encyclopedia of Science Fiction, Fourth Edition. Some sample entries appear below. Click here for the Introduction; here for the masthead; here for Acknowledgments; here for the FAQ; here for advice on citations. Find entries via the search box above (more details here) or browse the menu categories in the grey bar at the top of this page.

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The asteroids (or minor planets) mostly lie between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. The first to be discovered was Ceres, identified by Giuseppe Piazzi (1746-1826) in 1801; three more, including Vesta and Pallas, were discovered in the same decade, and hundreds of thousands have now been catalogued. Only a few are over 150 km (100 miles) in diameter, the largest – Ceres, classified since 2006 as a dwarf planet rather than an asteroid – being some 700 km (435 miles) across. A once ...

Pausacker, Jenny

(1948-    ) Australian author of books for the Young Adult market, mostly not sf, though Fast Forward (1989), for younger readers, is an sf tale. The Rings (1997) is horror, and The Perfect Princess (2003), in the Quentaris Chronicles Shared World enterprise, is fantasy. [JC]

Bogoraz, Vladimir Germanovitch

(1865-1936) Soviet anthropologist and linguist, who also signed himself Waldemar Bogoras and Tan-Bogoraz; a central figure in the study of the Chukchee language of Siberia, on which he published definitively. His sf novel, Zhertvy drakona (1927; trans Stephen Graham as Sons of the Mammoth 1929 US as by Waldemar Bogoras), is Prehistoric SF which reflects his professional concerns in a tale whose Neanderthal protagonists encounter rising human stock and a "mysterious" beast that turns out to be ...

Frewer, Ellen Elizabeth

(1848-1940) UK author and translator, active before the end of the nineteenth century; her translations of Jules Verne were fuller and less tampered-with than most other versions of Verne during the years she worked on his books. It has been suggested that her financial independence allowed her to be firm on maintaining the integrity of her work. Frewer's later life seems to have been lived in private. [JC]

Cayea, John

(?   -    ) US illustrator, seemingly active only from around 1970 to around 1981, his first cover being for Eando Binder's The Night of the Saucers (1971) from Belmont Books. Almost all of his following work was for Doubleday and Company, beginning with Jacqueline Lichtenberg's House of Zeor (1974). A Cayea cover soon became easy to recognize, often featuring a cleanly-executed, sometimes grotesque human or humanoid face or figure, usually centrally focused, ...

Clute, John

(1940-    ) Canadian critic, editor and author, in the UK from 1969; married to Judith Clute from 1964, partner of Elizabeth Hand since 1996. His first professional publication was the long sf-tinged poem "Carcajou Lament" (Winter 1960 [ie Autumn 1959] Triquarterly), though he only began publishing sf reviews in 1964 and sf proper with "A Man Must Die" in New Worlds for November 1966, where much of his earlier criticism also appeared. This criticism, despite some studiously ...

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