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Welcome to the Encyclopedia of Science Fiction, Fourth Edition. Some sample entries appear below. Click here for the Introduction; here for the masthead; here for Acknowledgments; here for the FAQ; here for advice on citations. Find entries via the search box above (more details here) or browse the menu categories in the grey bar at the top of this page.

Site updated on 10 January 2022
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Great and Small

One of the commonest fantastic devices in literature and legend is the alteration of scale. Mythology and folklore abound with giants and miniature humans, and different perspectives dependent upon changes of scale are central to many of the Satires recognized today as works of Proto SF, most notably Jonathan Swift's Gulliver's Travels (1726; rev 1735) and Voltaire's Micromegas (in Le Micromégas de Mr. de Voltaire ..., coll 1752; trans anon 1753). Mark Twain's uncompleted works include ...

Chambers, John

(1922-2001) US makeup artist and medical technician. Chambers first began to learn such techniques performing reconstructive surgery and designing prosthetic limbs for wounded soldiers while serving in World War Two. Chambers is of most importance to sf for his work on the Alien race the Vulcans featured on the original Star Trek (1966-1969) Television series – for which he moulded Spock's famously pointed ears – and as principal designer of the ape makeup for Planet of the Apes ...

Adderley, James

(1861-1942) UK minister, amateur actor, social reformist and author, of whose novels Behold the Days Come: A Fancy in Christian Politics (1907) generates, through Near Future debates between Christians and Socialists, a unified Christian Socialism central to the shaping of a better world, whose beginnings are depicted through a Utopian vision of the English Garden City. [JC]

Leiber, Fritz

(1910-1992) US author, father of Justin Leiber; his work runs the gamut from sf through fantasy and horror, with many tales achieving an eloquent Equipoise that enabled him to jostle various genres together, riding them with a freedom unusual for the period of their composition, making him a powerful model for later writers. Leiber majored in psychology and physiology at the University of Chicago, then spent a year at a theological seminary. His subsequent career included periods as an editor ...

World SF

1. An international association of sf professionals (not only authors, but also artists, critics, editors, agents, publishers, etc.), founded in Dublin, September 1976, by professionals at the First World Science Fiction Writers' Conference, and coming into operation as of the 1978 Dublin meeting. World SF's stated aim was "the general dissemination of creative sf, the furthering of scholarship, the interchange of ideas ... the fostering of closer bonds between those who already hold such deep ...

Clute, John

(1940-    ) Canadian critic, editor and author, in the UK from 1969; married to Judith Clute from 1964, partner of Elizabeth Hand since 1996. His first professional publication was the long sf-tinged poem "Carcajou Lament" (Winter 1960 [ie Autumn 1959] Triquarterly), though he only began publishing sf reviews in 1964 and sf proper with "A Man Must Die" in New Worlds for November 1966, where much of his earlier criticism also appeared. This criticism, despite some studiously ...

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