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Welcome to the Encyclopedia of Science Fiction, Fourth Edition. Some sample entries appear below. Click here for the Introduction; here for the masthead; here for Acknowledgments; here for the FAQ; here for advice on citations. Find entries via the search box above (more details here) or browse the menu categories in the grey bar at the top of this page.

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Hard SF

Item of sf Terminology coined by P Schuyler Miller in Astounding (November 1957) and since then widely used by sf Fandom and readers; it has sometimes overlapped in meaning with "hardcore sf", often used in the 1960s and 1970s to mean the kind of sf that repeats the themes and (to a degree) the style of the Genre SF written during the so-called Golden Age of SF. Though still sometimes used in a way that implies the element of nostalgia associated with "hardcore sf", the term "hard sf" now seems ...

Bould, Mark

(1968-    ) Critic, editor and academic based at the University of the West of England, Bristol. Founding co-editor (with Sherryl Vint) of Science Fiction Film and Television Journal, former co-editor (from 2001-2005) of Historical Materialism: Research in Critical Marxist Theory; advisory editorial board member for Extrapolation, Paradoxa: Studies in World Literary Genres and Science Fiction Studies; and an editorial board member for the Liverpool Science Fiction Texts and ...

Archer, Lee

Ziff-Davis House Name used 1956-1957 on three stories in Amazing and Fantastic. "Escape Route" (March 1957 Amazing) is by Harlan Ellison. The authors of the others have not been identified, though "Peter Merton's Private Mint" (October 1956 Fantastic) has also, implausibly, been credited to Ellison. [PN/MA]

Flanagan, Richard

(1961-    ) Australian author whose third novel, Gould's Book of Fish: A Novel in Twelve Fish (2001) describes early Australian history – specifically the deeply troubled culture of Tasmania – in terms at points reminiscent of the Magic Realism techniques used by Latin American writers in their manufacture of national myths of origin; the tale is a central example of what has come to be known as Tasmanian Gothic, with the landscape itself providing the Gothic ...


Jupiter's importance in sf is derived from its status as the largest planet in the solar system and also the most accessible – because nearest to Earth – of the Gas Giants (which see). Its four major moons – Ganymede, Callisto, Io and Europa – were discovered by Galileo, but it was not until 1892 that the US astronomer Edward Barnard (1857-1923) discovered the fifth. About a dozen others were discovered in the twentieth century. The visible "surface" of Jupiter is an ...

Langford, David

(1953-    ) UK author, critic, editor, publisher and sf fan, in the latter capacity recipient of 21 Hugo awards for fan writing – some of the best of his several hundred pieces are assembled as Let's Hear It for the Deaf Man (coll 1992 chap US; much exp vt The Silence of the Langford 1996; exp 2015 ebook) as Dave Langford, edited by Ben Yalow – plus five Best Fanzine Hugos and one Semiprozine Hugo for his self-produced news magazine, Ansible (which see). His one ...

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