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Welcome to the Encyclopedia of Science Fiction, Fourth Edition. Some sample entries appear below. Click here for the Introduction; here for the masthead; here for Acknowledgments; here for the FAQ; here for advice on citations. Find entries via the search box above (more details here) or browse the menu categories in the grey bar at the top of this page.

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Herring, Michael

(1947-    ) Prolific US illustrator, now resident in Australia, active in several other genres as well as sf. Herring received his art education in London at the Byam Shaw School of Drawing and Painting (1967-69) and at the University of California, Long Beach (1969-70). For the next several years he tried to make a living as a fine artist in California. In 1975 he moved to New York City and began working as a professional illustrator. Until about 1990 he worked in oils on ...

Grossman, Leigh

(?   -    ) US editor and author, who also writes as Leigh Ronald Grossman; perhaps best known for his sf Anthology, Sense of Wonder (anth 2011), which in its nearly 1,000 dense pages includes at least 200 sf stories with commentaries. His novels, including the Cards of Fate series beginning with The Green Lion (2007), and The Lost Daughters (2018), which is a singleton, are fantasy. [JC]

Hantke, Steffen

(1962-    ) German academic, MA and PhD in American Studies at Philipps University, Marburg, with a professional life in the US 1989-2003 and subsequently in South Korea. He began to publish genre-related articles in academic journals in the mid-1990s, first primarily on writers associated with the fantastic ranging from Kathe Koja and Michael Blumlein to Jack O'Connell and Geoff Ryman. With a shift from literature to Cinema, this interest is also reflected in Hantke's ...


Russian film (2020). Sony Pictures presents an Art Pictures Studio, Hype Film and Vodorod Pictures production in association with Fond kino. Directed by Egor Abramenko. Written by Oleg Malovichko and Andrei Zolotarev. Cast includes Oksana Akinshina, Fyodor Bondarchuk, Pyotr Fyodorov and Anton Vasiliev. 113 minutes. Colour. / A cosmonaut returns from orbit in 1983 with an Alien lifeform inside him (see Parasitism and Symbiosis). / "They have become completely symbiotic: they'll die ...

Trudno byt' bogom

1. Film (1989; vt Hard To Be a God). Dovzhenko Studio/Halleluya Film GMBH/VO Sovexportfilm. Directed by Peter Fleischmann. Written by Fleischmann, Jean-Claude Carriere, Dal Orlov, based on Trudno byt' bogom (1964; trans as Hard to be a God 1973) by Arkady and Boris Strugatski. Cast includes Andrei Boltnev, Edward Dzentara, Alexander Filippenko, Ann Gautier, Mikhail Gluzsky, Werner Herzog and Christina Kaufmann. 120 minutes. Colour. / The most ambitious Soviet sf film to date, this ...

Clute, John

(1940-    ) Canadian critic, editor and author, in the UK from 1969; married to Judith Clute from 1964, partner of Elizabeth Hand since 1996. His first professional publication was the long sf-tinged poem "Carcajou Lament" (Winter 1960 [ie Autumn 1959] Triquarterly), though he only began publishing sf reviews in 1964 and sf proper with "A Man Must Die" in New Worlds for November 1966, where much of his earlier criticism also appeared. This criticism, despite some studiously ...

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