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Welcome to the Encyclopedia of Science Fiction, Fourth Edition. Some sample entries appear below. Click here for the Introduction; here for the masthead; here for Acknowledgments; here for the FAQ; here for advice on citations. Find entries via the search box above (more details here) or browse the menu categories in the grey bar at the top of this page.

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Raymond, Alex

(1909-1956) US Comic-strip artist. As Jane Frank aptly notes, he is "one of the most famous science fiction artists of all time, although he never contributed an illustration to any science fiction magazine or book", earning that status for his decade of drawing the comic strip Flash Gordon. / Raymond received his artistic training at the Grand Central School of Art in New York City and began his career by working as an assistant on the strip Tillie the Toiler; soon he was also contributing ...

Benét, Stephen Vincent

(1898-1943) US author, active from before 1915, very briefly involved in World War One until his myopia was discovered; brother of William Rose Benét. He was initially most noted for his moderately copious Poetry, including an Arabian fantasy, The Drug-Shop; Or, Endymion in Edmonstoun (1917 chap). The earliest examples of poems with direct sf interest are probably "Winged Man" (in Young Adventure: A Book of Poems, coll 1918), which visualizes Icarus's flight reaching "the highest steeps ...

Trevor, Michael

(?   -    ) UK author of a Lost World tale Inca City (1947) whose young protagonists, having found an Incan talisman, end up in the eponymous forgotten City, where they excitingly become prisoners. [JC]


A term almost certainly devised by Gardner Dozois in the late 1980s to designate a story or book which has been written on hire; that is, assigned to an author – who will not hold copyright in the piece that s/he writes – by a franchiser or the copyright owner of the concept being developed. To describe a text as sharecropped is in 1995 almost certainly to disparage it as commodity fiction, designed to fit a prearranged marketing slot and written to order according to strict ...

Cheynell, Francis

(1608-1665) UK minister, controversialist from a Presbyterian point of view, and author; his Proto SF Satire, Aulicus His Dream, of the Kings Sudden Comming to London (1644 chap), is one of the first texts in English to be set, even notionally, in the future. The pamphlet complicatedly attacks the Royalist newspaper, Mercurius Aulicus, issues of which were routinely smuggled into London, and has no room in its few pages to develop its future setting. [JC]

Clute, John

(1940-    ) Canadian critic, editor and author, in the UK from 1969; married to Judith Clute from 1964, partner of Elizabeth Hand since 1996. His first professional publication was the long sf-tinged poem "Carcajou Lament" (Winter 1960 [ie Autumn 1959] Triquarterly), though he only began publishing sf reviews in 1964 and sf proper with "A Man Must Die" in New Worlds for November 1966, where much of his earlier criticism also appeared. This criticism, despite some studiously ...

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