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Welcome to the Encyclopedia of Science Fiction, Fourth Edition. Some sample entries appear below. Click here for the Introduction; here for the masthead; here for Acknowledgments; here for the FAQ; here for advice on citations. Find entries via the search box above (more details here) or browse the menu categories in the grey bar at the top of this page.

Site updated on 27 June 2022
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Star Trek Into Darkness

Film (2013). Paramount Pictures and Skydance Productions present a Bad Robot production. Directed by J J Abrams. Written by Roberto Orci & Alex Kurtzman & Damon Lindelof. Cast includes John Cho, Benedict Cumberbatch, Alice Eve, Bruce Greenwood, Leonard Nimoy, Simon Pegg, Chris Pine, Zachary Quinto, Zoë Saldana, Karl Urban, Peter Weller and Anton Yelchin. 133 minutes. Colour, 3D (converted). / After Kirk is demoted following a Prime Directive violation, his mentor Christopher ...


The word "economics" derives from a Greek word signifying the art of household management. Its modern usage has been extended by analogy to pertain to the management of the industry and finances of nations. Medieval economic "theory" was dominated by ethical considerations, and evaluative judgments still remain entangled with the science; economics thus has the capacity to arouse powerful passions in spite of its frequent designation as "the dismal science". This is very evident in fiction ...


Term originally coined outside sf as an alternative to "universe" that supposedly avoided any presupposition of a unique and ordered creation. Its best known early use was in an 1895 speech by US philosopher-psychologist William James (1842-1910), collected in his Will to Believe (coll 1897): "Visible nature is all plasticity and indifference, a moral multiverse, as one might call it, and not a moral universe." This was anticipated by the scientist and science writer William Denovan, who in a ...

Newcomb, Simon

(1835-1909) Canadian-born author, in the USA from 1853, of texts on and studies in Astronomy and Mathematics. In his Edisonade, His Wisdom, the Defender: A Story (1900), future historians tell how a professor discovers a limitless Power Source in 1941, is responsible for the Invention of an Antigravity device, and after creating a private army – equipping it with futuristic armour – takes over the world from the air, establishes a Pax Aeronautica and prohibits war. In "The End of ...


Film (1993). Paramount. Directed by Steve Barron, produced Lorne Michaels. Written by Tom Davis & Aykroyd and Bonnie Turner & Terry Turner. Cast includes Dan Aykroyd, Jane Curtin, Michael McKean and Laraine Newman. 82 minutes. Colour. / This gentle and very lightweight Satire, an intermittently amusing comedy, is based on sketches first performed on the US television show Saturday Night Live. Two Aliens (Aykroyd and Curtin), humanoids with conical heads who are married to one ...

Langford, David

(1953-    ) UK author, critic, editor, publisher and sf fan, in the latter capacity recipient of 21 Hugo awards for fan writing – some of the best of his several hundred pieces are assembled as Let's Hear It for the Deaf Man (coll 1992 chap US; much exp vt The Silence of the Langford 1996; exp 2015 ebook) as Dave Langford, edited by Ben Yalow – plus five Best Fanzine Hugos and one Semiprozine Hugo for his self-produced news magazine, Ansible (which see). His one ...

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