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Welcome to the Encyclopedia of Science Fiction, Fourth Edition. Some sample entries appear below. Click here for the Introduction; here for the masthead; here for Acknowledgments; here for the FAQ; here for advice on citations. Find entries via the search box above (more details here) or browse the menu categories in the grey bar at the top of this page.

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MacDougal, John

Collaborative pseudonym of James Blish and Robert A W Lowndes on "Chaos, Co-ordinated" (October 1946 Astounding), a story which makes comic science-fictional use of Lewis Carroll's The Hunting of the Snark: An Agony, in Eight Fits (1876 chap). [PN/DRL] links / Internet Speculative Fiction Database

Amazing World of Gumball, The

US/UK animated tv series (pilot 2008; 2011-2019). Cartoon Network Studios Europe. Created by Ben Bocquelet. Executive producers: Ben Bocquelet, Michael Carrington, Sarah Fell, Patricia Hidalgo and Daniel Lennard. Directors include Mic Graves. Writers include Ben Bocquelet, Joe Parham and Tobi Wilson. Voice cast includes Kwesi Boakye, Steve Furst, Nicolas Cant, Teresa Gallagher, Logan Grove, Donielle T Hansley Jr, Hugo Harrison, Jacob Hopkins, Kyla Rae Kowalewski, Lewis Macleod, Terrell Ransom ...

Colander, Valerie Nieman

(1955-    ) US newspaper editor, poet and author known mostly for her Young Adult novel, Neena Gathering (1988), set with some effectiveness in a balkanized post-Disaster America, though much that might seem innovative here is borrowed fairly directly from other tales set in what has become a very familiar venue. In this context, the heroine comes of age. The book was reissued under the byline Valerie Nieman, also used for the author's second novel To the Bones (2019). ...

Minto, William

(1845-1893) Scottish philosopher, academic, journalist and author whose sf novel, The Crack of Doom: A Novel (August 1885-June 1886 Blackwood's Magazine; 1886 3vols), portentously invokes the Disaster threatened by an approaching Comet to shape, intermittently, an otherwise prosaic (and conspicuously dithery) plot; in the event, the End of the World is averted. This novel should not be confused with The Crack of Doom (1895) by Robert Cromie. [JC]

Slingshot Ending

A term initially used by Kim Stanley Robinson when attempting to describe the typical ending of a Gene Wolfe tale. The Book of the New Sun (1980-1983 4vols), There Are Doors (1988) and Exodus from the Long Sun (1996) all close as their protagonists begin to move towards a goal which has been anticipated from the beginning. But they move out of frame, out of the end of the book, and the story closes as though before its proper ending. As Robert Frost said in a letter of 1 November 1927 (in ...

Clute, John

(1940-    ) Canadian critic, editor and author, in the UK from 1969; married to Judith Clute from 1964, partner of Elizabeth Hand since 1996. His first professional publication was the long sf-tinged poem "Carcajou Lament" (Winter 1960 [ie Autumn 1959] Triquarterly), though he only began publishing sf reviews in 1964 and sf proper with "A Man Must Die" in New Worlds for November 1966, where much of his earlier criticism also appeared. This criticism, despite some studiously ...

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