As the City at the heart of the British Empire, London was long seen by UK speculative authors as bearing the brunt of whatever Disaster the future might bring. There are many proleptic post-imperial visions of London destroyed or depopulated, as in William Delisle Hay's The Doom of the Great City; Being the Narrative of a Survivor, Written A.D. 1942 (1880 chap), and other works discussed under Ruins and Futurity. Often the city's colossal wreck is viewed through the memorializing gaze of an archetypal New Zealander or similar visitor from afar. George Bernard Shaw's play Back to Methuselah (1921; revs 1921-1945) goes beyond mere ruination: in the enlightened England of 3000 CE, a would-be pilgrim is disappointed to learn that nothing at all of London remains.
London comes under attack and/or is occupied in innumerable Future-War and Invasion scenarios. Some examples are: E Douglas Fawcett's Hartmann the Anarchist, or The Doom of the Great City (June-September 1893 The English Illustrated Magazine; 1893); Jingo Jones's The Sack of London by the Highland Host: A Romance of the Period (1900); Henry Curties's When England Slept (1909), in which German occupiers are eventually ousted; Saki's When William Came: a Story of London under the Hohenzollerns (1913); Emerson C Hambrook's The Red To-Morrow (1920); Cicely Hamilton's Theodore Savage: A Story of the Past or the Future (1922; rev vt Lest Ye Die: A Story from the Past or of the Future 1928); Hugh Addison's The Battle of London (1923); Roy Connolly's and Frank McIlraith's Invasion from the Air: A Prophetic Novel (1934) . . . and many further works in which Hitler Wins. A nuclear attack on the city is observed during a pause in futureward Time Travel in The Time Machine (1960). Terrorism rather than outright war causes damage or devastation to London in Coulson Kernahan's Captain Shannon (1896), J S Fletcher's The Three Days' Terror (1901) and Fred Hoyle's The Westminster Disaster (1978).
Alternatively, the city may be afflicted by natural Disaster, like the earthquake of Robert Buchanan's poem The Earthquake: Or Six days and a Sabbath (1885); a whole spectrum of unpleasantness in Fred M White's Doom of London stories (January 1903-October 1904 Pearson's Magazine); another earthquake in W Holt-White's The Earthquake: A Romance of London in 1907 (1906); the plague of Penelope Gilliatt's One by One (1965); the flood of Richard Doyle's Deluge (1976); and flood again in the second play of Steve Waters's The Contingency Plan: On the Beach & Resilience (coll of linked plays 2009).
More exotic threats to London include H G Wells's Martian tripods and heat Rays in The War of the Worlds (April-December 1897 Pearson's; 1898), the most famous of all; Vampires from space in Alan Hyder's Vampires Overhead (1935); the epidemic of blindness (worldwide but shown primarily through its effect on London) that unleashes the Triffids in John Wyndham's The Day of the Triffids (6 January-3 February 1951 Collier's Weekly; as "Revolt of the Triffids"; 1951; rev 1951; orig version vt Revolt of the Triffids 1952); Daleks – who would later return – in the Doctor Who storyline The Dalek Invasion of Earth (1964); a Zombie plague as a side-effect of psychic vampire invasion in Lifeforce (1985); Monsters from a literal mirror world in China Miéville's The Tain (2002 chap); and dragons (> Supernatural Creatures) in Reign of Fire (2002).
Post-Holocaust, post-Disaster and Ruined-Earth (which see) portrayals of a devastated London include: Richard Jefferies's After London; Or, Wild England (1885); Gerald Kersh's "Voices in the Dust of Annan" (13 September 1947 Saturday Evening Post as "Voices in the Dust"; vt in Sad Road to the Sea, coll 1947); Lord Dunsany's The Pleasures of a Futuroscope (written 1955; 2003); H C Asterley's Escape to Berkshire (1961); J G Ballard's The Drowned World (January 1962 Science Fiction Adventures; exp 1962), generating a potent yet languid strangeness by submerging the grey city in tropical waters; Arthur Sellings's Junk Day (1970); H R F Keating's A Long Walk to Wimbledon (1978); and Garry Kilworth's Abandonati (1988).
Inevitably, a number of Dystopias are set in variously horrid future or Near-Future Londons. Some examples are Guy Dent's Emperor of the If (1926), Barbara Wootton's London's Burning: A Novel for the Decline and Fall of the Liberal Age (1936), Sid Chaplin's Sam in the Morning (1965), Gill Edmonds's The Common (1984) and Graham Marks's Omega Place (2007).
London is echoed in imaginary Cities portrayed by several UK authors, rather as the fanciful metropoli of Italo Calvino's Le cittá invisibili (1972; trans as Invisible Cities 1974) are all in some way aspects of Venice. Terry Pratchett's Ankh-Morpork, as developed in later volumes of his Discworld sequence, reeks of Victorian London – almost literally so in The Truth (2000), with its refuse baron who knows there is "nothing, however gross, that you can't sell to the tanners", and other suggestions of intensive research in London Labour and the London Poor (1851-1861 4vols) by Henry Mayhew (1812-1887). A similar flavour of London sleaze pervades China Miéville's New Crobuzon, as first seen in Perdido Street Station (2000). Even the eternal city Diaspar of Arthur C Clarke's The City and the Stars (1956) conceals, far beneath its futuristic towers, a Transportation system uncannily like the London Underground.
Underground London has a grimy mystique of its own. Many a Doctor Who storyline sees portions of the Tube network infested with Aliens or Monsters. There are hidden Wainscot Societies and other wonders or horrors down there in such works as Bruce Graeme's Blackshirt the Adventurer (1936), Lawrence Leonard's The Horn of Mortal Danger (1980), William Corlett's The Secret Line (1988), Laurence Staig's The Network (1988), Peter Beere's Underworld sequence beginning with Underworld (1992) and Neil Gaiman's Urban Fantasy [see The Encyclopedia of Fantasy under links below] Neverwhere (1996; rev 1997). Gaiman's settings also include the city's vertiginously high places, the home and battlefield of another secret London in Roofworld (1988) by Christopher Fowler (1953- ).
Although the subgenre of Steampunk (which see) is largely of American origin, London is its natural home and favoured setting. Its precursors include stories set in the variously fantasticated Londons imagined by Charles Dickens (passim), Robert Louis Stevenson in New Arabian Nights (coll 1882), and G K Chesterton in The Man Who Was Thursday: A Nightmare (1908; vt The Annotated Thursday 1999). In another novel with a steampunk flavour, Philip Reeve's Mortal Engines (2001), London has become a mobile "Traction City" first seen "chasing a small mining town across the dried-out bed of the old North Sea".
Modern authors deeply involved with London's history and mythology include Peter Ackroyd with Hawksmoor (1985) and The Plato Papers (1999); Michael Moorcock, most evidently in the borderline-fantastic Mother London (1988); Iain Sinclair with White Chappell, Scarlet Tracings (1987), Downriver (1991) and Radon Daughters (1994); and Connie Willis, whose Time-Travelling historical researchers endure the Blitz of World War Two in her two-volume story Blackout (2010) and All Clear (2010).
Among the notable fictional inhabitants of London are Sherlock Holmes, his lesser imitators Sexton Blake (> Sexton Blake Library) and Solar Pons (> August Derleth), and, somewhere in the slums of old Limehouse, Sax Rohmer's villainous Fu Manchu. Not fictional, but anonymous and amenable to almost any fantastic interpretation, is the grisly figure of Jack the Ripper. [DRL]
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