Welcome to the Third Edition of the Encyclopedia of Science Fiction, edited by John Clute, David Langford, Peter Nicholls (emeritus) and Graham Sleight (managing). All 16,500+ entries are free online. A few sample entries appear below. Click here for the Introduction and more on the text; here for Frequently Asked Questions; here for advice to students on citations. Find entries via the search box above (more on searching here) or browse the menu categories to the right of the SFE logo. To identify whose initials appear at the end of any entry, click the Incoming button.

Carnegie Medal

Tagged: Award

This Award for distinguished works written for children was established in 1936 in memory of the Scots-born industrialist and philanthropist Andrew Carnegie (1835-1919). Though not specifically a genre award, it has several times been presented for Fantasy and supernatural fiction whose themes border on or overlap Children's SF and Young Adult genre work, and in 2011 went for the first time to an outright sf novel: Patrick Ness's Chaos Walking, Book Three: Monsters of Men (2010). Below we list the Carnegie recipients who have entries, or are otherwise discussed, in this encyclopedia. [DRL] 1936: Arthur Ransome, Pigeon Post (1936) 1944: Eric Linklater, The Wind on the Moon (1944) 1956:...

Arrow, William

Tagged: Author | House name

A House Name used by Ballantine Books for the Return to the Planet of the Apes Ties, based not on the Planet of the Apes films but on the later animated Television series. William Rotsler wrote #1 Visions from Nowhere (1976) and #3 Man, the Hunted Animal (1976); Donald J Pfeil wrote #2, Escape from Terror Lagoon (1976). [DRL] "William Arrow" works series Return to the Planet of the Apes Return to the Planet of the Apes 1: Visions from Nowhere (New York: Ballantine, 1976) by William Rotsler [tie: Return to the Planet of the Apes: pb/] Return to the Planet of the Apes 2: Escape from Terror Lagoon (New York: Ballantine, 1976) by Donald J Pfeil [tie: Return to the Planet of the Apes:...


Tagged: Theme | Character

The charismatic, goddess-like female ruler – usually referred to as "She" or "She-Who-Must-Be-Obeyed" – in the Ayesha sequence by H Rider Haggard, opening with She: A History of Adventure (October 1886-January 1887 The Graphic; cut 1886; full text 1887). Ayesha clearly combines aspects of Aphrodite and Isis, being imperious, ravishing and potentially Immortal; but vulgarized echoes can also be detected of the primal Greek goddess Kore, the Eleusinian Demeter/Persephone dyad whose seasonal renewals distantly shape the She figure's frequent rebirths. Her sexual allure, which Haggard renders with a lack of horror unusual in a nineteenth-century writer of popular fiction, is central, and governs...


Tagged: International

Much early Australian sf falls into subgenres which can be described as sf only controversially: lost-race romances, Utopian novels and Near-Future political thrillers about racial invasion. Works of utopian speculation began appearing in Australia about the middle of the nineteenth century and were set, appropriately for a new society in a largely unexplored land, either in the Far Future or in Australia's deep interior (indeed, Australia's remoteness encouraged UK and US writers to make similar use of the land as a venue for utopian speculation). Among early utopias by Australians are Joseph Fraser's Melbourne and Mars: My Mysterious Life on Two Planets (1889) and G McIver's Neuroomia: A...

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