Time Travel need not employ the specific technological focus of a Time Machine. Rather than deal with a machine's theory and construction, or such consequences of its repeated use as Time Paradoxes, many authors prefer to stipulate a "natural", usually one-off, accident that effects whatever time-transfer the story requires. In this encyclopedia's Terminology, the device is referred to as a timeslip. It is popular – especially in fantasy – for its narrative economy, minimizing sf explanation and proceeding directly to the story. The avoidance of overt sf trappings has likewise made the theme especially attractive to Mainstream Writers of SF.
A classic sf example is the lightning bolt which in L Sprague de Camp's Lest Darkness Fall (December 1939 Unknown; 1941; rev 1949) hurls the twentieth-century protagonist into the past; this transit is described within the book itself as a "time-slip". Mark Twain uses the impact of a crowbar to similar if less plausible effect in A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court (1889; vt A Yankee at the Court of King Arthur 1889), while earthquakes are responsible in J Leslie Mitchell's Three Go Back (1932; cut and bowdlerized 1953). The Hiroshima bomb causes the unfortunate title character of Gerald Kersh's "The Brighton Monster" (21 February 1948 Saturday Evening Post as "The Monster"; vt in The Brighton Monster, coll 1953) to timeslip 200 years into the past. Isaac Asimov makes then-fashionable play with unknown side effects of nuclear reactions to explain away a transfer into the Far Future in Pebble in the Sky (1950); a World War Three nuclear attack does the same in Robert A Heinlein's Farnham's Freehold (1964); and an accident with a wrongly configured radio telescope projects a man's mind into the far future in James Blish's Midsummer Century (April 1972 F&SF; rev 1972). Less dramatic but equally convenient timeslips occur in Jack Finney's Time and Again (1970) and Richard Matheson's Bid Time Return (1975; vt Somewhere in Time 1980).
J W Dunne's theories of Time gave some respectability to the notion of timeslips, leading to their use in the time plays of J B Priestley. In John Dickson Carr's three timeslip detective novels, twentieth-century visitors encounter past crimes, like the London police officer transported to the early days of Scotland Yard in Fire, Burn! (1956); the notion is reprised, with a smaller shift from 2006 to 1973, in the BBC television series Life on Mars (2006-2007) (see Life on Mars).
Timeslips in Military SF generally bring modern Weapons – or knowledge of how to construct them – into past conflicts: Dean McLaughlin's "Hawk Among the Sparrows" (July 1968 Analog) thrusts a missile-armed fighter plane into World War One and The Final Countdown (1980) takes the USS Nimitz back to just before the Pearl Harbor attack (to little effect), while Eric Flint's 1632 (2001) and its sequels see a modern American community stranded in seventeenth-century Germany during the Thirty Years' War (whose course it drastically reshapes). S M Stirling's Nantucket trilogy, beginning with Island in the Sea of Time (1998), displaces the modern island of Nantucket 3000 years into the past, again precipitating an Alternate History. A notable Japanese take on the theme is Ryō Hanmura's Sengoku Jieitai ["Civil War Self-Defence Force"] (1974), filmed as Sengoku Jieitai (1981).
On a smaller scale, there are several stories in which future newspapers and similar information sources reach the present day via timeslip. Some examples are: "The Queer Story of Brownlow's Newspaper" (February 1932 Strand) by H G Wells, with a 1971 newspaper; "Snulbug" (December 1941 Unknown) by Anthony Boucher, whose newspaper proves to be only notionally futuristic; "Of Time and Third Avenue" (October 1951 F&SF) by Alfred Bester, with a 1990 almanac; "What We Learned from This Morning's Newspaper" (in Infinity Four, anth 1972, ed Robert Hoskins) by Robert Silverberg; The Hitch Hiker's Guide to the Galaxy (1979) by Douglas Adams, with a complete Encyclopedia Galactica slipping back through time for the sake of a punchline; and Back to the Future Part II (1989), where a future book of sports trivia provides useful information for placing bets.
Another view of timeslips considers them as analogous to slipped geological faults in Time, bringing different strata of history into geographical proximity. Slippage of this kind features in "Sidewise in Time" (June 1934 Astounding) by Murray Leinster – in which, strictly speaking, portions of different Parallel Worlds rather than different eras are brought together; October the First is Too Late (1966) by Fred Hoyle; "Lost Ground" (December 1966 New Worlds) by David I Masson – which wittily refers to its patchwork of adjoining time-zones as the "poikilochronism"; the Television series The Fantastic Journey (1977); and Time's Eye (2004) by Arthur C Clarke and Stephen Baxter, which inter alia pits Alexander the Great against the Mongol hordes of Genghis Khan. A similar geographical slip seems to occur in Robert Charles Wilson's Darwinia (1998), with Europe reverting in 1912 to a kind of Alternate History prehistoric ecology: in fact this Earth inhabits a Virtual Reality simulation which has become corrupted.
Several authors have played with the concept of minimalist timeslips which displace individuals very slightly in time, so that they are both part of yet subtly alienated from the present. Brian Aldiss's "Man in His Time" (April 1965 Science Fantasy), with its displacement of just 3.3077 minutes, is the definitive treatment. The notion makes an earlier appearance, though to little effect, in the film Timeslip (1956) and – based on his script for this film – Charles Eric Maine's The Isotope Man (1957). Eric Brown homages the Aldiss story in "The Time-Lapsed Man" (Summer 1988 Interzone). [DRL]
see also: Ronald A Knox.
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