(1797-1851) UK author, daughter of the philosopher and novelist William Godwin (1756-1836) [for entry on Godwin, see The Encyclopedia of Fantasy under links below], and of the feminist and educationist Mary Wollstonecraft (1759-1797) (see Feminism), who died eleven days after giving birth to her. Shelley married Percy Bysshe Shelley on 30 December 1816, two years after they had eloped to the Continent, and after his first wife had committed suicide. During 1816 the couple – by this point Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin was using the Shelley surname – spent much time with Lord Byron, whom they had recently met, and with whom they would spend much of the summer at the Villa Diodati on the southern shore of Lake Geneva, which he had rented. 1816 was the famous Year without Summer – only later was it confirmed that the enormous volcanic eruption of Mount Tambora on Sumbawa Island (Dutch East Indies) in 1815 had been a Disaster that, darkening the entire globe, caused a world-wide "Year Without Summer" – and this apocalyptic weather often forced the group, which included John Polidori, to stay indoors, where it was both dry and comparatively safe: weather-caused famine had had a destabilizing effect on Switzerland, leading to insurrectional violence and the declaration of a state of emergency. It seems fitting that perhaps the first climate crisis identified by contemporaries as being a planetary event should frame at least two of the texts central to the early shaping of the fantastic in general (see Fantastika): Polidori's The Vampyre: A Tale (April 1819 New Monthly Magazine; 1819 chap) as by the Right Honourable Lord Byron, which initiated the topos of the Byronic Vampire (see Decadence; Immortality; Superman; Supernatural Creatures), and Shelley's first novel.
On an evening in June 1816, the Year Without Summer having once again prevented outdoor activities, the entourage read aloud to one another some tales from (it is understood) the French translation of a German horror collection later released in English, Das Gespensterbuch ["The Ghost Book"] (coll 1811-1815 5vols) by Johann August Apel (1771-1816), and Friedrich August Schulze (1770-1849) writing as Friedrich Laun. The first two volumes, with cuts, appeared in French as Fantasmagoriana (coll trans Jean Baptise Benoit Eyries 1812), and this redaction, with further cuts and one added story, appeared as Tales of the Dead: Principally Translated from the French (coll trans Sarah Elizabeth Utterson 1813). It is understood the French text was used on the night in question. Seemingly inspired by the Club Story frame of this collection, Byron suggested that each of those in attendance that night write a similar ghost story to be read aloud on a subsequent evening. Percy Shelley seems to have written nothing; Byron's contribution, "Fragment of a Novel" (in Mazeppa, coll 1819), remained incomplete; Polidori wrote The Vampyre, and later wrote Ernestus Berchtold; Or, the Modern Oedipus: A Tale (1819), a Gothic novel involving incest and Doppelgangers and with roman à clef links to the events of 1816; and Mary Shelley began the tale which eventually became Frankenstein; Or, the Modern Prometheus (1818; rev 1831). Films about or referring directly to the Villa Diodati events include The Bride of Frankenstein (1935) directed by James Whale, Gothic (1986) directed by Ken Russell, Haunted Summer (1988) directed by Ivan Passer (1933- ) and Remando al viento [Rowing with the Wind] (1988) directed by Gonzalo Suárez (1934- ).
Frankenstein is the most famous English Horror novel, and was initially understood as a particularly intense and argued example of the Gothic tale, a form that in English reached its late climax in Charles R Maturin' s Melmoth the Wanderer (1820). Brian W Aldiss's argument that it is in fact the first sf novel (see Gothic SF) – a deliberately transgressive argument that first appeared as "The Origin of the Species: Mary Shelley", the opening chapter of his Billion Year Spree (1973; much exp vt Trillion Year Spree 1986 with David Wingrove) – may go too far in effectively treating all previous texts as examples of Proto SF, but does cogently highlight the Promethean newness of the book, its rendering of a deep intuition that with the creation of the Frankenstein Monster the world had been seen anew. This is particularly evident in the 1818 text (see two paragraphs below), the version which inspired the first of many dramatizations, Presumption; Or, The Fate of Frankenstein (performed 28 July 1823 Lyceum Theatre, London; 1824) by Richard Brinsley Peake (1792-1947). The structure and telling of the tale may seem difficult to modern readers, most of whom will be more familiar with the numerous film, television and other spin-offs (see Frankenstein) than they will be with the original. But Shelley's use of some now unfamiliar Gothic conventions – stories within stories, all framed within a seemingly extraneous and clearly estranging epistolary "over-frame"; florid rhetoric and sophomoric philosophizing; elaborate recourse to the conventions of the Bildungsroman – may also have proved hard for some of its original readers to handle: because the difficulty of Frankenstein does not prelude a lifting of the veil so that sensations can be felt and the guilty punished; the difficulty of the book seems more related to the genuine difficulty of Shelley's subject matter, and to a genuinely alarming sense that in the closing pages of the tale –if both the framing device and the narrative within it are properly understood – we are meant to realize that a Pandora's Box has been opened; and that it has not been shut.
The epistolary frame that surrounds the tale is narrated after the events unpacked within; in this frame a young explorer named Walton, who has been searching for a warm region surrounding the North Pole, describes in letters to his sister his meeting, north of the Arctic Circle, with the deathly-ill Baron Victor Frankenstein, who is in pursuit of a Monster he describes vividly in the course of recounting his life story. Taking up much of the book itself, this narrative describes – with what modern readers might deem narcissistic exactitude – the Baron's childhood; his childhood sweetheart; his scientific ambitions to create life through his mastery of chemistry and his interest in galvanism, which may be the "spark" of life; the creation of the giant Golem-like figure who becomes his Thing, his Twin, his Nemesis, the eagle that eats his guts; and his shocked – but to later eyes revealingly pious and self-serving – refusal to "compassionate" this creature, whom he subsequently abandons, arguing that his ugliness and demeanour are against nature. After the monster has taken his vengeance by causing the death of some of his relatives, the Baron tracks him down, but is confronted by the "daemon", who mounts a wholly articulate, scathing indictment of his creator's behaviour, ending eloquently:
"Remember that I am thy creature – I ought to be thy Adam – but I am rather the fallen angel, whom thou drivest from joy for no misdeed; every where I see bliss from which I alone am irrecoverably excluded. I was benevolent and good; misery made me a fiend. Make me happy, and I shall again be virtuous."
"Begone!" replied I [that is, the Baron] – "I will not hear you."
The "fiend" then forces the Baron to listen to the story of his life after he came to consciousness in the laboratory; this story echoes and amplifies the Baron's own earlier narrative, within which it is nestled, and is rendered in the first person, in the monster's own voice, with Club-Story vividness. He describes himself as a tabula rasa open to the fullest of educations – significantly, among his reading matter is Goethe's The Sorrows of Young Werther (1774) – and in this imprintable state he learns how to be a philosopher by listening in secret to an exiled noble family, whose blind paterfamilias is teaching an Arabian maid named Safie (or Sophia, which is to say Wisdom) to speak his language; it is to this patriarch that the Monster finally utters his first words: "Pardon this intrusion." Unfortunately, there are misunderstandings, dismay, horror, and melodrama, and his narrative concludes as – taking his cue (which is to say continuing his education) from the revulsion of his maker – he learns how to be a monster. The Baron's own narrative now resumes: after he reneges on his promise to create a female partner for his monster, the frustrated Twin wreaks further havoc on the Frankenstein family, and the Baron tracks him back and forth through an increasingly desolate world, with the intention of killing him, until both are found north of the Arctic Circle, at which point the frame story resumes. But Frankenstein commits suicide in despair, and Walton is left to confront the "monster", who declares his intention to continue into the furthest north of the planet, where he intends (he states) to immolate himself. The text gives no surety, however, that he does so; indeed, the last paragraph of the novel constitutes a Slingshot Ending, with the monster disappearing into "the darkness and distance", into a region that Shelley herself thought, consistently with scientific speculations then current, might be a haven of Hyperborean clemency capping the planet (see again Fantastika).
The evolution of the final text(s) of Frankenstein is fairly complex – the Checklist (see below) lists four primary states in order of composition – but it can be described fairly clearly in terms of chronology (note that several editions of the 1818 and 1831 versions of the tale have been produced, usually with arguments advocating the text chosen). After the issue of The Frankenstein Notebooks (1996 2vols) edited by Charles E Robinson (1941-2016) which gives an extensively annotated transcript and facsimile of the original 1816-1817 manuscript of the novel, the same editor has published a relatively straightforward transcript of Shelley's original manuscript (plus a version of that manuscript with her husband's revisions) as The Original Frankenstein: Or, the Modern Prometheus: The Original Two-Volume Novel of 1816-1817 from the Bodleian Library Manuscripts (Oxford, Oxfordshire: Bodleian Library/University of Oxford, 2008) as by Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley (with Percy Bysshe Shelley). Comparison of the two texts confirms that Percy Shelley gave his wife's manuscript a fairly heavy edit, adding about 4000 words to the 72,000 word total; these edits run a gamut from the obvious and necessary to the detrimental. Robinson's title-page insertion of Percy Shelley's name as a secondary author of the text, though perhaps innocent of malice, does sadly echo attempts that began while both Shelley and her husband were alive to cast doubt on her authorship, usually implicitly or explicitly because of her sex (see Women SF Writers). Robinson's own evidence makes it clear that Percy Shelley's interventions came at an "intermediate stage" of the writing of the novel, and that they resembled the kind of edits a competent publisher's editor would plausibly suggest. To put his name on the title page might seem as inappropriate as to give Max Perkins title-credit as co-author of Thomas Wolfe's far more radically modified You Can't Go Home Again (1940).
More important to an evaluation of Mary Shelley's intent – as regards a text so ransacked for meanings that it is probably impossible to create a full conspectus of the varying interpretations on offer – is a growing consensus that the 1818 text should be taken as more important than the 1823 and 1831 versions, the latter more far-reaching in its changes. The increasing number of critics and readers who focus on the transgressiveness of Frankenstein in the unsettled period following the end of the Napoleonic Wars (the Villa Diodati event occurred one year after the Battle of Waterloo) – and upon the taxing ambivalence of the Frankenstein Monster (or "creature") as he declares himself – have found the 1818 text particularly rewarding. The 1831 version can be read as attempting to normalize precisely that transgressiveness and that ambivalence, mainly by treating the monster more clearly as an abominable Invention, as a figure less easily identified as a kind of Doppelganger of Baron Frankenstein himself, and by imposing a sanitizing Christian gloss on the meaning of the tale through the insertion of homiletic tags. It is the 1818 text in particular that makes it possible to suggest a reading where the subtitle – The Modern Prometheus – refers not solely to the Baron Frankenstein and his hubristic attempt to gain knowledge that should be "forbidden", and to dramatize to an astonished world his gift of knowledge by creating life out of clay; but also by transference to his dark twin, the "Promethean" Hero/Antihero who offers to the world a Pandora's Box of "gifts", though challengingly unwaged (see Slavery). These gifts include: knowledge; power; replicability (for he is half a Golem and half an assembly-line creation); educability (for if the tabula rasa Frankenstein Monster can become a philosopher through a process of eavesdropping, then there is no excuse for refusing education and concomitant social mobility to anyone outside the walls, whatever their class or gender or race); and revolutionary turmoil, for he is an untermensch come to claim his place at the shaken table of civilization, another Mysterious Stranger invading the mansions of the West to demand his birthright. The Europe of 1816, still feverishly unsettled after the Napoleonic years, had not in fact fully absorbed – or properly established a system of denial to dodge the implications of – the Haitian Revolution (1791-1804), which had specifically threatened the racist prescriptions that justified the rapacious growth of European empires (see Imperialism). In this context, it is hard not to read Shelley's "Monster" as echoing and/or embodying that threat (see Race in SF). (Nineteenth-century stage productions often featured an unmistakably non-white Monster.)
After that one, endlessly interpretable tale, Shelley wrote several novels, including two Gothic romances of some interest, and a further sf tale, The Last Man (1826), set at the end of the twenty-first century, during the course of which a plague decimates humanity. The surviving Americans invade Europe but, although war ends before the extinction of humanity, the remaining British are soon reduced through strife until the Last Man of the title, whose situation reflects Shelley's own sense of isolation, but who also resembles her late husband, ends the novel in a small boat sailing off to the Eastern Isles: one secular survivor on a dying planet as the End of the World approaches. Though preceded by Jean-Baptiste Cousin de Grainville' s Le Dernier Homme (1805; first proper trans I F Clarke and Margaret Clarke as The Last Man 2002), Shelley's significantly more dramatic narrative served as a model for much subsequent work.
The story of greatest interest assembled by Richard Garnett in Tales and Stories by Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley (coll 1891) is The Mortal Immortal (in The Keepsake for MDCCCXXXXIV, anth 1833, as "The Mortal Immortal: A Tale"; circa 1910 chap), dealing with Drug-produced Immortality; stories omitted from (or unavailable for) Garnett's volume include "Roger Dodsworth: The Reanimated Englishman" (written 1826; in Yesterday and Today, anth 1863, edited by Cyrus Redding) and "Valerius: The Reanimated Roman" (written circa 1819; in Collected Tales and Stories; With Original Engravings, coll 1976, edited by Charles E Robinson), in each of which a Reincarnated protagonist compares his new circumstances with those of his original existence (see Ruins and Futurity). Shelley's shorter works have been variously assembled; the most authoritative is the Robinson collection cited above. Several are given in the Checklist below. Shelley was posthumously inducted into the Science Fiction Hall of Fame in 2004. [JC]
see also: Androids; Anonymous SF Authors; Biology; Conceptual Breakthrough; Critical and Historical Works About SF; Fantastic Voyages; Gods and Demons; History of SF; Holocaust; Medicine; Power Sources; Religion; Scientists; Sex; Technofantasy; Theatre.
Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin Shelley
born London: 30 August 1797
died London: 1 February 1851
For clarity, we list here the four substantively differing texts in order of composition, not of original publication; in each case, the first published version of each state is listed, plus a selection of critical editions where applicable.
- The Frankenstein Notebooks (New York: Garland Publishing, 1996) edited by Charles E Robinson [published in two volumes: transcript and facsimile of Shelley's draft of 1816-1817 plus a complexly annotated rendering of the 1818 first published edition, with Percy Shelley's revisions: hb/nonpictorial]
- Frankenstein: Or, the Modern Prometheus (London: Lackington, Hughes, Harding, Mavor, and Jones, 1818) [published in three volumes: first published edition: binding unknown/]
- The Annotated Frankenstein (New York: Clarkson N Potter, 1977) edited by Leonard Wolf [1818 text with annotations: hb/]
- The Essential Frankenstein (New York: Penguin Books/Plume, 1993) edited by Leonard Wolf [rev vt of the above: 1818 text with annotations: pb/]
- Frankenstein: Or, the Modern Prometheus (West Hatfield, Massachusetts: Pennyroyal, 1983) [published in three volumes: 1818 text with critical essays by Joyce Carol Oates and others: hb/Barry Moser]
- Frankenstein: Or, the Modern Prometheus (Peterborough, Ontario: Broadview Press, 1994) edited by D L Macdonald and Kathleen Scherf [1818 text with annotations and additional material: hb/]
- The Annotated Frankenstein (Cambridge, Massachusetts: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2012) [1818 text with extensive notes on 1831 text: edited by Ronald L Levao and Susan J Wolfson: illus/various: hb/Panoramic Images/Getty Images]
- Frankenstein: Edited for Scientists, Engineers, and Creators of all Kinds (Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 2017) [1818 text edited by Charles E Robinson: commentary editors Ed Finn, David H Guston and Jason Scott Robert: pb/Marge Encomienda]
- The New Annotated Frankenstein (New York: W W Norton and Company/Liveright Publishing Corporation, 2017) [1818 text with 1823 and 1831 changes and revisions included in parallel along the margins: edited with commentary by Leslie S Klinger: hb/Nina Loschiavo]
- Frankenstein: Or, the Modern Prometheus: A New Edition (London: G and W B Whittaker, 1823) [published in two volumes: with at least 100 corrections and revisions, most minor but some substantive: binding unknown/]
- Frankenstein: Or, the Modern Prometheus: Revised, Corrected, and Illustrated with a New Introduction, by the Author (London: Henry Colburn and Richard Bentley, 1831) [first publication of the revised 1831 edition: binding unknown/]
Posthumous collections are highly selected.
- The Last Man (London: Henry Colburn, 1826) as the author of Frankenstein [published in three volumes: binding unknown/]
- The Last Man (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Carey, Lea and Blanchard, 1833) as Mary Shelley [published in two volumes: binding unknown/]
- The Fortunes of Perkin Warbeck: A Romance (London: Henry Colburn and Richard Bentley, 1830) [published in three volumes: binding unknown/]
- Lodore (London: Richard Bentley, 1835) [published in three volumes: binding unknown/]
- Tales and Stories of Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley (London: William Paterson and Co, 1891) [coll: hb/]
- The Mortal Immortal (no place given but probably New York: Mossant, Vallon and Company, 1910) as by Mary W Shelly [story: chap: first appeared as "The Mortal Immortal: A Tale" in The Keepsake for MDCCCXXXXIV (London: Longman, Rees, et al: 1833) ed Frederic Maunsel Reynolds: hb/]
- Collected Tales and Stories; With Original Engravings (Baltimore, Maryland: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1976) [coll: edited with introduction by Charles E Robinson: illus/various original illustrations: hb/Susan Bishop, from portrait of Mary Shelley]
- The Mortal Immortal: The Complete Supernatural Short Fiction of Mary Shelley (San Francisco, California: Tachyon Publications, 1996) [coll: introduction by Michael Bishop: hb/Michael Dashow]
- The Novels and Selected Works of Mary Shelley (London: Pickering and Chatto, 1996) edited by Nora Bennett [coll/omni: published in eight volumes: hb/]
about the author
There is much criticism; we give a selected list, weighted towards recent readings.
- Muriel Spark and Derek Stanford, editors. My Best Mary: The Selected Letters of Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley (London: Allan Wingate, 1953) [nonfiction: hb/A L C Savory]
- Brian W Aldiss. Billion Year Spree: The History of Science Fiction (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1973) [nonfiction: pp7-39, "The Origin of the Species: Mary Shelley": hb/Your Company]
- Donald F Glut. The Frankenstein Catalog: Being a Comprehensive Listing of Novels, Translations, Adaptations, Stories, Critical Works, Popular Articles, Series, Fumetti, Verse, Stage Plays, Films, Cartoons, Puppetry, Radio & Television Programs, Comics, Satire & Humor, Spoke & Musical Recordings, Tapes, and Sheet Music Featuring Frankenstein's Monster and/or Descended from Mary Shelley's Novel (Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland and Co, 1984) [nonfiction: hb/]
- Harold Bloom, editor. Mary Shelley (New York: Chelsea House, 1985) [nonfiction: anth: hb/]
- Miranda Seymour. Mary Shelley (London: John Murray, 2000) [nonfiction: hb/]
- John Williams. Mary Shelley: A Literary Life (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2000) [nonfiction: hb/]
- Timothy Morton. Mary Shelley's Frankenstein: A Sourcebook (London: Routledge, 2002) [nonfiction: hb/]
- Lucy Morrison et al. A Mary Shelley Encyclopedia (New York: Greenwood Press, 2003) [encyclopedia: hb/]
- Esther Schor, editor. The Cambridge Companion to Mary Shelley (Cambridge, Cambridgeshire: Cambridge University Press, 2003) [nonfiction: anth: hb/]
- Robert Eldridge. Mary and Her Monster; Or, the Pride of Frankenstein: A Play (Elizabethtown, New York: Gloomhaven Press, 2014) [play: chap: disquisition on Shelley in dramatic form: pb/]
- Christopher Frayling. Frankenstein: The First 200 Years (London: Reel Art Press, 2017) [nonfiction: hb/]
- Kathryn Harkup. Making the Monster: The Science Behind Mary Shelley's Frankenstein (London: Bloomsbury Sigma, 2018) [nonfiction: bibliography is untrustworthy: hb/Neil Stevens]
- Fiona Sampson. In Search of Mary Shelley: The Girl Who Wrote Frankenstein (London: Profile Books, 2018) [nonfiction: hb/]
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