Entry updated 7 November 2023. Tagged: Prelim.
Virtually all the acknowledgements in the second edition of 1993, as reproduced in the 1995 CD-ROM, still apply – these appear below the following list of third-edition addenda. First come those without whom this online edition would never have appeared.
- Gollancz, our publisher from 2011 to 2021, made the third edition possible. The stewardship of the project by Malcolm Edwards and Simon Spanton of Orion/Gollancz is greatly appreciated.
- Darren Nash, while at Little Brown/Orbit Books, provided valuable support in the early years of this project; and more recently brought it to harbour as Digital Publisher at Gollancz; his successor was Marcus Gipps.
- STEEL of London created the official website, and we are grateful to our development team: Anwar Ishak, Rob Dinsdale, Nicky Applegarth, Chima Osuji, Piotr Wieruszewski, Tom Moran and Erika Toth.
- John Clute would like to thank Judith Clute and Liz Hand. They may not have known it would be a life sentence.
- Hazel Langford struggled with varying success to keep David Langford sane.
- John and Pamela Lifton-Zoline of The Telluride Institute were our generous sponsors during lean times when the third edition was between publishers.
- We also thank our many Contributors.
Also invaluable and greatly appreciated for their help before and since the third edition's public launch were:
- Donors of funds to the Encyclopedia, all also listed in the indented section below this bullet list, are numerous. Some very substantial contributors prefer to remain anonymous. Otherwise, our particular thanks for generosity well beyond the call of expectation must go to Peter Arden, Rick Ayre, Beale-Williams Enterprise (Deborah Beale and Tad Williams), Pierre Blanc-Sahnoun, Mike Christie, Martin Dorfer, Trent Eades, Bryan Feehan, Max Fenton, Alison Henderson, John Howard, Frederick P Kiesche, Erin Kissane, Benoit Jauvin-Girard, Joe Haldeman, John W Knott Bookseller LLC, David J Lally, Li Zhaoxin, John McCormick, Robert Pisani, David Redd, Alastair Reynolds, Andy Richards (Cold Tonnage Books), Dara Rivera, David L Russell, Terrence Somerville, Alan Walker, VanderMeer Creative (Ann VanderMeer and Jeff VanderMeer) and Stephen West.
- Many book cover images in the SF Encyclopedia Picture Gallery, besides those from our editorial team, are taken with gladly acknowledged permission from: James Cummins Bookseller (with thanks to Henry Wessells), L W Currey Inc, DreamHaven Books (with thanks to Greg Ketter), Fanac.org (with thanks to Joe D Siclari), Forbidden Planet (with thanks to Jason Hicks), the Gardner Francis Fox Library (with thanks to Kurt Brugel), the Friardale Website (with thanks to administrator Stewart Clark), John W Knott Jr, Bookseller, PS Publishing (with thanks to Nicky Crowther), Ragged Claws Network (with thanks to Wallace Polsom), Wildside Press (with thanks to John Betancourt) and Wrigley-Cross Books (with thanks to Debbie Cross and Paul Wrigley). Others who have provided scans from their own collections include Brian Ameringen, John Davey, David Dyer-Bennet, David Haddock, William S Higgins, Steve Holland, Steve Jeffery, Leroy Kettle, Mark Olson, Lawrence Person, David Redd, Yvonne Rousseau, Jérôme Serme, Andrew M Stephenson, Morgan Wallace, Andrew Wells, Henry Wessells and Mark Wood.
- Ahasuerus of the Internet Science Fiction Database arranged many thousands of ISFDB links to the Encyclopedia, reciprocated by our ISFDB links in the links sections of many thousands of our own entries.
- Dirk P Broer, Mike Christie, Michael Emery, Daniel Robert Lewis, Lyman Tower Sargent and Jan Vaněk Jr are among our most indefatigable suppliers of corrections and factual feedback.
- Catherine Crockett assisted with the rekeying of the first edition's headword list as a research tool for the third edition.
- The bookseller Robert Eldridge very extensively annotates the (sometimes otherwise unobtainable) early sf in which he specializes, these comments being essential aids; and has offered advice and corrections.
- The Fictionmags email discussion list – in particular its members John Boston, Ian Covell, John Eggeling, Denny Lien, Todd Mason, David Pringle and Phil Stephensen-Payne – supplied corrections and information on incomplete story ascriptions and much else.
- Geoffrey Fisher has provided data for many years, and was particularly generous during the long period (1995-2005) when we were relatively inactive and grateful for all assistance.
- Rachel Haywood Ferreira (Latin America/Iberia Subeditor) coordinated various academic experts who have contributed entries relating to Portugal, Spain and Latin America.
- Stephen Holland expanded on entries' personal dates and genealogical information as well as providing other factual input throughout.
- Steven Hunt, a UK librarian and sf enthusiast, provided valuable bibliographic support.
- Farah Mendlesohn (Academic Subeditor) mentored several sf-studies postgraduates who have written and/or updated entries for genre critics: in particular Leimar Garcia-Siino, Tim Miller, Glyn Morgan, Chris Pak and Michelle Yost.
- Online SF Resources have become indispensable and have been gratefully used.
- Pamela Scoville – literary and art agent, married to John Grant until his death – carried out a pre-launch check of all the encyclopedia's external links in late September 2011.
- Phil Stephensen-Payne provided links to illustrated magazine checklists at his Galactic Central site: these have been added to the entries for hundreds of relevant magazines.
- Third Row Fandom made useful comments on the Encyclopedia's content. Further helpful advice about online possibilities was provided by Roger Hart, Erin Kissane, Peter Richardson and Mike Scott.
- Mark Yon carried out much of the rekeying of the first edition's headword list as a research tool for the third edition.
- And finally, a small number of contributors to the first and/or second editions have disappeared from the main Contributors list because their work has been superseded by newly written entries: Jim Harmon (JH: Radio in the USA), Phil Nichols (PhN: Radio in the UK) and Krzysztof Sokołowski (KS: Poland). Their past support is still appreciated.
A third list of those who have provided welcome post-launch feedback and/or cash donations [see links below] is now perpetually under construction as follows, and is likely to become very substantial:
Ben Aaronovitch, John Joseph Adams, Terry A Adams, Ahasuerus, David Ainsworth, Matthijs Alberts, Lou Anders, Douglas A Anderson, Johan Anglemark, Paul Annis, Peter Arden, Catherine Asaro, John Atkinson, Rick Ayre, John Baker, John Bark, John Barnes, Sherry Bastion, Alex Baxter, Beale-Williams Enterprise (Deborah Beale and Tad Williams), Ben Beck, Gareth J Bellaby, Don Benish, Serge V Berezhnoy, Eric M Berg, Michael Berk, John Berlyne, John D Berry, Jill Berryman, Les Bessant, Joshua Bilmes, Richard Blake, Pierre Blanc-Sahnoun, David Blyth, P Boccaccio, Margaret Wander Bonanno, Paul Bond, Sandra Bond, Mike Bondanza, Vladimir Borisov, Bridget Bradshaw, Jean-Daniel Brèque, Dirk P Broer, Alasdair Brown, Eric Brown, Simon Bucher-Jones, Saxon Bullock, Bill Burns, Andrew M Butler, Randy Byers, Mark Caldicott, Sheri Cannataro, Michael Capobianco, Avedon Carol, Steve Carper, Fred Carr, Grant Carrington, Darrah Chavey, Mike Christie, Richard Chwedyk, Garry Clarke, Douglas Cohen, Curt Collins, Jeff Cook, Gary Couzens, Robert Craddock, Rob Crausaz, Paul Cross, Michael Croteau, Felix Cruz, Vincent Cruz, E M Culver, Sally Diffin Cummings, Cymlake, Andrew Darlington, Jim Darroch, Ellen Datlow, Sukanya Datta, Steve Davidson (see Amazing Stories), Gordon Davie, Chris Davis, Matthew Davis, S Davis, Bob Devney, Sarah Dietz, Stuart Douglas, David Duffy, Guy Dugdale, Bob Dunford, Pierre-Paul Durastanti, Trent Eades, Kate Elliott, Michael Edwards, Jason Ellis, Johan Elzer, Mike Emery, William Emmons, Ahrvid Engholm, Thomas Epps, Mark O J Esping, Art Evans, Liz W Faber, Moshe Feder, Bryan Feehan, Max Fenton, Fred Fischer, Brian Fitzsimons, Ross Fletcher, Andrew A Foley, Mark Foskey, Alan Dean Foster, Chris Fowler, Gregory D Franklin, Aja Frary, Paul Fraser, Paul Friedman, Laura Brodian Freas, David Friese, Doug Frizzle, Atsushi Fukumoto, Daniel Fullmer, Mattia Galli, Robert Gemmell, Rowan Gibbs, Matthew Gilbert, Bruce Gillespie, Bryony Giugno, Mike Glyer of File 770, Adam Golaski, Robert Gorsch, Eric M Gorse, John Gosling, Steven Gould, Chris Green, Nicola Griffith, Eileen Gunn, Anthony Ha, David Haddock, Joe Haldeman, Michael Hale, Ed Hall, Charlie Hancock, Steven Hancock, Clifford Handover, Sherry Ballou Hanson, Roger Harris, Niall Harrison, Michael Healy, Alison Henderson, James Hendrie, Bill Higgins (William S Higgins), Chip Hitchcock, Ian Hocking, Neil Holford, Mo Holkar, Frank Hollander, Nick Honeywell, Rich Horton, Ash Howe, Brian J Hunt, Terry Hunt, Michael H Hutchins, Trivo Indjic, Robert Irwin, Adam Jacobs, Benoit Jauvin-Girard, Daniel Jay, Vlatko Juric-Kokic, Michael Griffin Kane, Ruth H Karbach, Pekka Karjalainen, Jason Katz, Rick Katze, Tony Keen, Andy Kelly, Mark R Kelly of Locus, Toshiya Kamei, Stephen Kehoe, Andrew Kelly, John V Keogh, John Kessel, Jeffrey Kesselman, Leroy Kettle, Sohail Khan, Frederick P Kiesche, Ron Kihara, Richard Kilmurray, Tim Kindberg, Robert Kirkpatrick, Erin Kissane, Gérard Klein, Colin Knight, John W Knott Jr, Don Korycansky, Chris Kovacs, Stanisław Krawczyk, Michael Krawec, Marc Kupper, Heiko Langhans, James Latondre, Guy Lawley, Sharon Lee, Christoph Lehmann, Stephen Leigh, David J Lally, Paul Levinson, Daniel Robert Lewis, Robert Lichtman, Josef Lindner, Jim Linwood, Li Zhaoxin, Mike Lowrey, Aleksandr Lukashin, Svante Lovén, A P Lukashin, Duncan Lunan, William A McCabe, Una McCormack, John McCormick, Kate Macdonald, Francis McEwen, Christy MacHale, Joseph McKee, Rich McKinney, Chris McKitterick, Norman Madsen, Johny Malone, Barry Malzberg, Nick Mamatas, Leslie Mandel-Herzog III, Laurie Mann, Ray Marcinow, Chris Markwyn, Todd Mason, Heather Masri, Phil Masters, Alastair Mayer, Joseph Maybrick, Joe Meeks, William Meikle, Andrey Meshavkin, Bryan Mewse, Andrew Miller, Laurene Miller, Mario Milosevic, Jim Mladenovic, Samuel Montgomery-Blinn, Joseph Monti, Cheryl Morgan, Howard Morgan, Tim Morgan, Ian Morley, Sandy Morrison, Oliver Morton, Jack Mulcahy, Bill Mullins, Edwin L Murray, Wayne Myers, Christopher Nadon, Kalin Nenov, Wolfgang Neuhaus, Dave Newton, Amber Nichols, Phil Nichols, Patrick Nielsen Hayden, Ron Niquette, Marek S Nowowiejski, Rias Nuninga, Christopher M O'Brien, Gavin L O'Keefe, Jaroslav Olša Jr, Luis Ortiz, Eddie Ouille, Peter Owen, Dr Michael Page, P Palazzolo, Andrea Pardo, John Park, Kevin Parsons, Hayford Peirce, Doug S Peterson, Curt Phillips, Julie Phillips, Mark Phillips, Greg Pickersgill, Avital Pilpel, Jim Pinkoski, Robert Pisani, Mark Plummer, Germán Ponte, Alan Poulter, Christopher Pound, Teri Power, Charles Prepolec, Kenneth Prewitt, Christopher Priest, Howard Prouty, Jean Prouvaire, Jeff Prucher, Kevin Pulliam, Philip Purser-Hallard, Daniel Quigley, Bruce Ramage, Dom Rascona, John Redford, David Redd, Chris Reed, Rod Rees, James H Reeve, Robert Reginald, Graham Reilly, Dan Reid, Mark K Rempel, Alastair Reynolds, Andy Richards (Cold Tonnage Books), Nonie Rider, Adrian Risdon, Pete Risley, Dara Rivera, Anna Robb, Eric Rosenfield, Umberto Rossi, Ari Rottenberg, Gordon Rottman, Yvonne Rousseau, Marcus Rowland, Alexander Royfe, David L Russell, Mike Russell, Sheila Ruth, Jens Sadowski, Lyman Tower Sargent, Andy Sawyer, Richard Scheib, Lawrence Schimel, Gary Schmidt, Darrell Schweitzer, Jenni Scott, Kenn Scott, Jérôme Serme, Lansing Sexton, Jesse Sheidlower, Flash Sheridan, Bill Shunn, Jared Shurin, Luca Signorelli, Sammy Silvers, David Smith, Frederick A Smith, Stephanie A Smith, Maureen Kincaid Speller, John Spence, Barry Sperling, Steven H Silver, Richard Simms, Rainer Skupsch, Jeff Smith, Steve Sneyd, Terrence Somerville, David Staves, Don C Stewart, Eric Solstein, Dale Sproule, Kevin A Standlee, Max Starkenburg, Don Stewart, Ian Stewart, J R Stockton, William H Stoddard, Hilary Strang, Geri Sullivan, Lucy Sussex, Lawrence P Sweet, Leslie Kay Swigart, Random Switch, Joseph Tabler Books, Alfonso G Tatarano, Marianne Taylor, Steve Taylor, Raja Thiagarajan, Geoff Thorpe, Apoorv Tripathi, Jean-Louis Trudel, Richard Van Dongen, Jan Vaněk Jr, VanderMeer Creative (Ann VanderMeer and Jeff VanderMeer), P Villars, Wolf von Witting, Wolfgang Rieger, Simon Varnam, Jasper Vrancken, Alan Walker, Nicholas Waller, Peter Wareham, Bill Warren, Jan Wass, Rob Weber, Paul Weimer, Barry Weinberger, David Welch, Andrew Wells, Paul Wendt, Stephen West, Matthew White, Nicholas Whyte, Ian Williams, Tad Williams, Benjamin Wilson, Polyphemus Winks, D D Wolf, Gerry Wolstenholme, Thomas Worthington and Pete Young.
Others, equally appreciated, chose to provide feedback anonymously or simply forgot to add their names to email messages. Our thanks to all.
John Clute, David Langford and Graham Sleight
We must first thank all the Contributors, to both the first edition and the current edition. We thank especially our Contributing Editor, Brian Stableford, whose influence extended far beyond the 200,000 words signed with his initials, for his tasks included a severe examination of the entire text for errors of fact and critical blunders. We thank our Technical Editor, Paul Barnett, whose logistic and computer skills brought this book into publishable shape, and whose editing skills importantly influenced its language and form. We thank our proof-reader, Lydia Darbyshire, a model of meticulousness whose examination of data for consistency was itself tantamount to a critical reading of the text. We thank also all those sf authors and critics who took the time to fill out a questionnaire or otherwise provided us with vital information. We also thank John Jarrold, the original commissioner of this volume.
It is not possible individually to thank all those who helped in other ways, for the list would contain some hundreds of names. It goes without saying that we remain grateful to all those we thanked in the preface to the first edition, and we do not repeat their names here. Of the large number who helped us with the current edition, there are some in particular whose extensive help we must comment on. Neil Barron, whose reference books were among those we most often consulted, provided us with much other information and with constant encouragement. Everett F Bleiler, who read critically many parts of the encyclopedia that pertained to his areas of particular expertise, generously contributed to it – out of his deep love for the subject – several substantial entries on early sf and sf writers. His son, Richard Bleiler, also altruistically contributed advice and entries, as did Professor I F Clarke. Judith Clute kept John Clute alive, while painting in the next room. Clare Coney (Nicholls) provided not only support well beyond the call of wifely duty but also considerable editorial assistance. Geoffrey Fisher provided much biographical data on authors, along with other suggestions. Hal W Hall generously provided research materials. Steve Holland helped us make sense of the bibliography of 1950s sf in the UK. Roz Kaveney commented on hundreds of author entries as they were drafted, and then read the manuscript. David Langford gave essential computer advice and help, made many suggestions throughout, and read the manuscript. Helen Nicholls understood her brother and her friend. Robert Reginald, author of the basic and essential checklist of sf literature from 1700 to 1974 (see below), made available successive drafts of his 1975-1991 supplement (now just published), and we supplied him in turn with final drafts of this encyclopedia. John Clute read and criticized the checklist; Reginald did the same for the encyclopedia. We are all hoping that both books show the benefits of this sharing of resources.
Others whose help was substantial (often in locating hard-to-find data, and in setting us right on first-edition errors) include Paul Alkon, Brian Ameringen, Mike Ashley, Nick Austin, John Betancourt, Jenny Blackford, Damien Broderick, John F Carr, T G Cockcroft, Michael Rice Colpitts, Ian Covell, Richard Dalby, John Dallman, John Davey, Joyce Day, Jane Donawerth, Nann du Sautoy, John Eggeling, Alex Eisenstein, Alan C Elms, Brian Forte, Andrew Fraknoi, D Douglas Fratz, Neil Gaiman, Martin Gardner, C N Gilmore, Mark Goldberg, Paul Gravett, Scott Green, the Reverend Ron Grossman, Rob Hansen, David Hartwell, Patrick Nielsen Hayden, Richard J Hooton, Maxim Jakubowski, Laurence M Janifer, Don Keller, David Ketterer, Michael Klossner, Justin Knowles, Eleanor Lang, Anthony R Lewis, Duncan Lunan, Kerzin Alexey Lvovich, Patrick McGuire, Murray MacLachlan, Sean McMullen, Barry N Malzberg, Lee Mendham, Walter E Meyers, Chris Morgan, Caroline Mullan, Alan Myers, Kim Newman, John C Nine, Jaroslav Olsa jr, Jan O'Nale, Bernie Peek, Dominique Petitfaux, Andrew Porter, David Pringle, Jenny Randles, Kim Stanley Robinson, Roger Robinson, Cornel Robu, Yvonne Rousseau, Darrell Schweitzer, the Science Fiction Foundation, A Langley Searles, Efim Shur, Cyril Simsa, John Sladek, John B Spencer, Phil Stephensen-Payne, Darko Suvin, Braulio Tavares, Sheldon Teitelbaum, Ron Tiner, Igor Tolokonnikov, Ian Watson, Bob Wayne, Janeen Webb, Andrew Wille, Madawc Williams, G Peter Winnington and Zoran Zivkovic.
In the first edition it was still possible to acknowledge individually the reference books that formed the basis of our research library. There are now too many, though perhaps we can select a few which were of special and continuous use: Neil Barron's Anatomy of Wonder, Fantasy Literature and Horror Literature; Everett F Bleiler's Science Fiction: The Early Years; the annual sf/fantasy bibliographies edited by Charles N Brown and William G Contento for Locus Press; Thomas D Clareson's Science Fiction in America, 1870s-1930s; the sf and fantasy book-review annuals compiled by Robert A Collins and Robert Latham; William G Contento's indexes to sf anthologies and collections; L W Currey's Science Fiction and Fantasy Authors: A Bibliography of First Printings of their Fiction; Donald B Day's Index to the Science Fiction Magazines 1926-50; Hal W Hall's various guides to sf book reviews and research papers; Phil Hardy's The Aurum Film Encyclopedia: Science Fiction; George Locke's A Spectrum of Fantasy; the NESFA sf-magazine indexes covering publications subsequent to 1965; Robert Reginald's Science Fiction and Fantasy Literature: A Checklist, 1700-1974 and Science Fiction and Fantasy Literature, 1975-1991; Erwin S Strauss's Index to the S-F Magazines, 1951-65; Darko Suvin's Victorian Science Fiction in the UK; Donald H Tuck's Encyclopedia of Science Fiction and Fantasy through 1968; Marshall B Tymn's and Mike Ashley's Science Fiction, Fantasy and Weird Fiction Magazines; the two volumes of Bill Warren's Keep Watching the Skies; Robert Weinberg's A Biographical Dictionary of Science Fiction and Fantasy Artists.
We end by issuing a conventional but heartfelt apology and thanks to all those others who have helped and have not appeared on the above lists.
John Clute and Peter Nicholls
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